In this study, the life cycle environmental implications of modular multi-storey building with cross-laminated timber (CLT) volumetric elements are analysed, considering the product, construction, service life, end-of-life and post-use stages. A bottom-up attributional approach is used to analyse the environmental flows linked to the global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP) and eutrophication potential (EP) impacts of the building for a 50-year reference study period. The result shows that the building’s life cycle impacts can vary considerably, depending on the energy production profile for the operation of the building. The product, construction and end-of-life stages constitute a significant share of the life cycle impacts, and the importance of these stages increase as the energy production profile evolves towards a low-carbon energy mix. For the GWP, the product and construction stages constitute 13% of the total life cycle impact when the operational energy is based on a coal-based marginal electricity. The contribution of this stage increases to 81% when electricity is based on a plausible long-term Swedish average mix. The patterns of the life cycle EP and AP impacts are also closely linked to the energy production profile for the assessment. The analysis shows that a 5% reduction in the GWP impact in the product stage is achievable with emerging solutions for the improved structural design of CLT buildings. This study highlights the need for strategies to improve the life cycle environmental profile of modular CLT buildings.