Wood-frame is the most common construction type for residential buildings in North America. However, there is a limit to the height of the building using a traditional wood-frame structure. Cross-laminated timber (CLT) provides possible solutions to mid-rise and high-rise wood buildings. CLT offers many advantages such as improved dimensional stability, a quicker erection time and good performance in case of fire. In order to introduce the cross-laminated timber products to the North American market, it is important to gain a comprehensive understanding of its structural properties. This paper focuses on the seismic performance of CLT connections. Over the last few years FPInnovations of Canada has conducted a test program to determine the structural properties of CLT panels and its application in shear walls. The test program comprised of more than 100 connection tests which followed the loading procedures of CUREE and ISO test protocols as specified in ASTM Standards ASTM E 2126-09 (2009). These tests were performed parallel and perpendicular to the grain of the outer layer, respectively. The impact of different connections on the seismic performance of CLT walls was investigated in a second phase on full size shearwall. CLT panels are relatively stiff and thus energy dissipation must be accomplished through the ductile behaviour of connections between different shear wall elements and the connections to the story below. A literature review on previous research work related to damage prediction and assessment for wood frame structures was performed. Different approaches for damage indices were compared and discussed. This paper describes how the energy-based cumulative damage assessment model was calibrated to the CLT connection and shear wall test data in order to investigate the damage under monotonic and cyclic loading. Comparison of different wall setup provided a deeper insight into the damage estimation of CLT shear walls and determination of the key parameters in the damage formulation. This represents a first published attempt to apply the damage indices to estimate the seismic behaviour of CLT shear walls.