As environmental conservation and sustainability gain prominence globally, modern timber structures are receiving increased focus. Nonetheless, the combustible nature of timber raises significant fire safety concerns. This review explores the recent advancements in fire safety engineering for timber structures, emphasizing both contemporary high-rise buildings and historical timber constructions. It covers topics like inherently safer design principles, fire risk prediction, and evacuation methodologies. The review emphasizes the criticality of selecting suitable materials, structural design, firefighting systems, and advanced sensor technologies for early fire detection. Additionally, we analyze and compares various evacuation strategies, offering insights into the challenges and future directions for fire safety in modern timber structures.