In this study, an analytical approach is introduced for predicting the bending behavior of a timber–concrete composite (TCC) beam subjected to a mechanical load and a non-uniform temperature field, in which the orthotropy of timber as well as interfacial slip are taken into consideration. The analytical model addresses the non-uniform temperature field using Fourier series expansion based on the heat transport theory. The stresses and displacements of the TCC beam under the thermo-mechanical condition are governed by the thermo-elasticity theory, and the corresponding solution is derived analytically by solving a group of non-homogeneous partial differential equations. The proposed solution is in good agreement with the finite element solution and exhibits higher accuracy compared to the Euler–Bernoulli beam solution that relies on the assumption of transverse shear deformation and isotropy. An extensive investigation is carried out to analyze how the bending behavior of TCC beams is influenced by variations in interfacial shear stiffness and temperature field.