In this study, four wood-based materials (plywood, laminated veneer board (LVB), oriented strand board (OSB), and particle board (PB)) were proposed as layered materials for CLT to improve its shear performance. The fabricated hybrid CLT exhibited better bending, shear performance, and compressive strength than that of traditional CLT. The out-of-plane bending performance, in terms of modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture, improved by 2912–5836 MPa and 1.89–18.54 MPa compared with that of traditional CLT. The out-of-plane shear modulus and strength of the LVB CLT and PLY CLT improved by 31.19–76.15 MPa and 0.5 MPa, respectively, compared with that of traditional CLT. The compressive strength of the hybrid CLT improved by 6.86–24.6 MPa. The cross-arranged veneer with the LVB and plywood exhibited rolling shear failure. The ratio of tensile and shear failure of LVB CLT and PLY CLT increased compared to traditional CLT. The failure mode of the hybrid CLT with OSB and PB exhibited shear failure in the middle of the panel thickness of the OSB and PB. This study confirmed an improvement in the mechanical properties of hybrid CLTs with wood-based materials. LVB and plywood hybrid CLTs exhibited the best results. Additional studies are required on the mechanical properties of hybrid CLTs in the arrangement direction of wood-based materials and in the minor direction of the hybrid CLT.