The performance of adhesive-bonded timber-concrete-composites (TCC) can be enhanced by using beech wood and polymer concrete (PC). In this work, two different PCs with an epoxy- and a polyurethane (PUR)-based matrix were investigated for application in TCCs. The mechanical performances were tested in dry and wet state by small-scale shear tests and flexural tests. Epoxy-PC showed high bond strength to beech with a shear strength of 16.7 ± 3.0 MPa compared to 3.2 ± 1.7 MPa observed with PUR-PC. Characterization of the swelling strain with digital image correlation (DIC) showed superior water stability of the epoxy-PC compared to PUR-PC. The results indicate that PCs, especially epoxy-PC, could be viable replacements for cement-based concrete in TCCs.