Cross-laminated timber (CLT) has become a massive commercial success in recent years due to its high performance, technological advantages, and low environmental impact. The finite softwood raw material supply has motivated researchers to find alternatives. This study presents an investigation of the viability of some Hungarian hardwood materials, such as CLT materials. Homogeneous beech, poplar, and spruce panels, as well as their combinations, were created using a polyurethane adhesive. The experimental results show the clear potential of Hungarian poplar, which performed much better than spruce. Poplar’s modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) values reached or exceeded those of high-grade commercial softwood CLT. The bending properties of beech and hybrid beech–poplar panels far exceeded the performance of commercial panels, which shows the excellent potential of high-density hardwoods for high-performance CLT production. Beech–spruce hybrid panels seriously underperformed. This was caused by gluing issues, probably due to the large density differences between the two species, as evidenced by the glueline failure exhibited by most of these specimens during testing. The average panel density proved to be the best predictor of mechanical performance, except for beech–spruce hybrid panels.