Adhesives and metallic fasteners play a pivotal role in the domain of engineered wood products (EWPs). Nevertheless, owing to their origins in petroleum, adhesives can pose environmental hazards, whereas metal fasteners can complicate end-of-life disposal and reusability. Nonetheless, a resolution emerges in the form of dovetail massive wooden board elements (DMWBEs), characterized by their pure wood composition and absence of adhesive metal connections. The existing literature pertaining to DMWBEs has predominantly focused on inadequate structural analysis and model testing of connection specifics rather than appraising the efficacy of a structural member, such as a floor slab. This article presents a comparative analysis between a DMWBE and a correspondingly sized cross-laminated timber (CLT) panel, focusing on their respective airborne sound insulation capabilities. Experimental samples of model scale with dimensions of 200 mm thickness, 1160 mm width, and 1190 mm length were employed for both CLT and DMWBE. The evaluation of airborne sound insulation performance was conducted in accordance with ISO 10140-2 standards. The findings underscored the superior performance of DMWBE (Rw = 43 dB) in contrast to CLT (Rw = 40 dB) concerning airborne sound insulation efficacy. Additionally, the damping of the panel increased due to the different composition of the DMWBE, as evidenced by a higher measured total loss factor (TLF) compared with CLT.