Bending strength tests were conducted of cross-laminated timber (CLT)-concrete composite slabs according to the shear connection method and carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) reinforcement. The bending strength of the composite slab that was shear-connected with an epoxy adhesive was 17% higher than that of a composite slab that was shear-connected with a self-tapping screw. In addition, the CLT-concrete slip of the former composite slab was also measured as 20% lower than the latter under the same load, showing a behavior close to that of a full composite. Both shear connection methods generated a failure in a low load-deformation section when there was a defect in the outermost tensile laminae of the CLT. In contrast, the CFRP reinforcement in the tension part of the composite slab suppressed the failure at the defect in the outermost tensile laminae. This reinforcement effect increased the reliability of the bending performance of the composite slab by preventing the failure of the composite slab while in a constant failure mode. Furthermore, the slip of the composite slab decreased 49% after its reinforcement with CFRP, showing a behavior close to that of a full composite.