Changes in the condition of existing timber structures can be caused by fatigue or biological attack, among other things. Replacing damaged timber is still very expensive, so it seems more advisable to repair or reinforce damaged elements. Therefore, in order to improve the static performance analysis of timber structures, reinforcement applications in timber elements are necessary. In this experimental study, technical-scale glulam beams measuring 82 × 162 × 3650 mm, which were reinforced with carbon strands and carbon laminates, were tested in flexure. A four-point bending test was used to determine the effectiveness of the reinforcement used in the timber beams. Internal strengthening (namely, glued carbon cords placed into cut grooves in the last and penultimate lamella) and an external surface of near-surface mounted (NSM) carbon laminates glued to the bottom surface of the beam were used to reinforce the laminated ashlar beams. As a result of this study, it was found that the bending-based mechanical properties of ash wood beams reinforced with carbon fibre-reinforced polymer composites were better than those of the reference beams. In this work, the beams were analysed in terms of the reinforcement variables used and the results were compared with those for the beams tested without reinforcement. This work proves the good behaviour of carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP—Carbon fibre reinforced polymer) cords when applied to timber beams and carbon laminates. This study illustrated the different reinforcement mechanisms and showed their structural properties. Compared to the reference samples, it was found that reinforcement with carbon strings or carbon laminates increased the load-bearing capacity, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity, and reduced the amount of displacement of the timber materials, which is an excellent alternative to the use of ashlar and, above all, inferior grade materials due to the current shortage of choice grade. Experimental results showed that, with the use of carbon fibre (carbon cords SikaWrap® FX-50 C—Sika Poland Sp. z o.o., Warsaw), the load bearing capacity increased by 35.58%, or with carbon cords SikaWrap® FX-50 C and carbon laminates S&P C-Laminate type HM 50/1.4 - S&P Poland Sp. z o.o., Malbork, by 45.42%, compared to the unreinforced beams.