The construction industry is one of the largest producers of greenhouse gases, accounting for 38% of global carbon emissions. Recently, interest in mass timber construction has grown, due to its potential benefits in reducing environmental impact compared to traditional construction methods that use steel and concrete, and in promoting global sustainability and climate agendas, such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and global net-zero emissions by 2050. Despite the slow adoption of mass timber construction (MTC) in Australia, some innovative and iconic projects and initiatives have been realised. The research intends to identify critical challenges and potential for broader adoption of MTC in Australia. The study reviewed selected MTC projects, followed by a perception survey and interviews of the relevant industry stakeholders in Australia to understand the key barriers and enablers for the widespread application of MTC in Australia. Significant challenges identified in the research include a lack of understanding of fire safety, regulations, performance, inherent application, and local manufacturers and suppliers, which are yet to be improved. In addition, it was found that prior experience built confidence in the application of MTC. Furthering widespread adoption of MTC technology in Australia beyond cost competitiveness requires the Australian construction industry to work towards developing suitable regulatory and insurance policies, financing, incentivising clients, and a skilled workforce. The study focuses on an investigation in the context of industry perceptions of MTC in Australia. Based on the analysis of the critical characteristics of MTC projects, and using the empirical data, the study identifies key challenges and opportunities in the widespread application of MTC in Australia.