Composite materials are increasingly used to strengthen existing structures or new load-bearing elements, also made of timber. In this paper, the effect of the number of layers of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) on the load-bearing capacity and stiffness of Glued Laminated Timber beams was determined. Experimental research was performed on 32 elements—a series of eight unreinforced beams, and three series of eight reinforced beams: with one, three and five layers of laminate each. The beams with a cross-section of 38 mm × 80 mm and a length of 750 mm were subjected to the four-point bending test according to standard procedure. For each series, destructive force, deflection, mode of failure, and equivalent stiffness were determined. In addition, for the selected samples, X-ray computed tomography was performed before and after their destruction to define the quality of the interface between wood and composite. The results of the conducted tests and analyses showed that there was no clear relationship between the number of reinforcement layers and the load-bearing capacity of the beams and their stiffness. Unreinforced beams failed due to tension, while reinforced CFRP beams failed due to shear. Despite this, a higher energy of failure of composite-reinforced elements was demonstrated in relation to the reference beams.