One of the recent additions to the panoply of engineered wood products is cross-laminated timber (CLT). CLT is a prefabricated, large-scale, solid wood panel that consists of multiple layers of lumbers stacked together, with each layer arranged perpendicular to the next layer, glued with structural grade adhesives, and pressed. The use of massive CLT panels in wood construction provides several advantages over the traditional wood frame systems, making it particularly attractive for tall wood building construction. These main advantages are satisfactory distribution of defects, adequate seismic performance, ability to carry large loads, improved strength and stiffness, adequate acceptable fire performance, acceptable acoustic performance, and improved pre-fabrication.It is expected that as the CLT market will continue to mature, more diversified grades and special CLT products will be introduced into the markets. One special CLT product developed in at Oregon State University has been designated as hybrid CLT. Hybrid CLT refers to CLT panels manufactured with layers of high- and low-grade and low-density species, which aims at improving the economic efficiency and sustainability of the CLT industry with focus on the North America market.One of the potential issues with hybrid CLT panel application is related to the unknown performance of the connection systems which are highly dependent on the density of the wood in which the fasteners embed. Most of the existing models that have been developed for estimation of the fasteners capacities in withdrawal and lateral loading scenarios are developed based on the assumption of uniform density profile across the layers to which fasteners penetrate. In a hybrid CLT panel, there is a possibility of a variation in density profile along the panel thickness so that the fasteners can be driven into wood of different densities and driven in directions parallel and perpendicular to grain. Because of the potential variation in density profile in the hybrid CLT, the connection system performance cannot be predicted using design models used for uniform density profile applications similar to the models in National Design Specification (NDS) . Therefore, there is a need for evaluation of connections performance in hybrid layup.The main objective of this work is to characterize the performance of connection systems for hybrid CLT. This is achieved through testing and modeling of single fastener connections and then testing and modeling of the typical connection systems. So, the specific objectives are: (1) evaluate the single fasteners performance to account for density variation and compare the results to a proposed modified model, (2) perform an experimental program to test different connection systems with different hybrid CLT panel layups, (3) develop a numerical algorithm based on the use of meta-heuristics tools to fit the optimal parameters for constitutive models to match the experimental data for the connection systems, (4) obtain the optimal parameters for constitutive models of the connection systems tested.