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Structural Properties of Commercial Australian Plantation Hardwood CLT

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3355
Year of Publication
2023
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Gutierrez, Mateo
Ettelaei, Azin
Kotlarewski, Nathan
Lee, Michael
Organization
Cusp Building Solutions
University of Tasmania
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2023
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Plantation
Hardwood
Eucalyptus nitens
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
Significant volumes of plantation hardwood are available in Australia to produce value-added engineered wood products such as cross-laminated timber (CLT). To validate the possibility of utilising this available resource, the bending structural properties of plantation Eucalyptus nitens solid board and finger-jointed feedstock were measured. The studied CLT panels produced from finger-jointed lamellas were subjected to bending strength, bending stiffness, rolling shear strength in bending, and pure rolling shear tests to obtain characteristic design values. Solid and finger-jointed timber test results suggested that boards used in longitudinal lamellas have a bending strength of 36.0 MPa and a modulus of elasticity (MOE) of 13,000 MPa. Finger-jointed timber in crossed lamellas presented a declared bending strength of 25.0 MPa. CLT panels showed a bending strength of 24.0 MPa and a rolling shear strength of 2.0 MPa. The experimental results for the CLT panels evidenced that the CLT bending stiffness matches up very well with the modelled results when an MOE of 13,000 MPa is used to describe the stiffness of longitudinal boards. The results presented in this study establish a basis for the commercial use of Australian plantation hardwood CLT in structural applications such as floors and roofs in commercial and residential buildings.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Increasing Mass Timber Consumption in the U.S. and Sustainable Timber Supply

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2888
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Comnick, Jeff
Rogers, Luke
Wheiler, Kent
Organization
University of Washington
Editor
Lauteri, Marco
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Mass Timber
Embodied Carbon
Sustainable Timber Supply
Forest Inventory
Reforestation
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
Mass timber products are growing in popularity as a substitute for steel and concrete, reducing embodied carbon in the built environment. This trend has raised questions about the sustainability of the U.S. timber supply. Our research addresses concerns that rising demand for mass timber products may result in unsustainable levels of harvesting in coniferous forests in the United States. Using U.S. Department of Agriculture U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data, incremental U.S. softwood (coniferous) timber harvests were projected to supply a high-volume estimate of mass timber and dimensional lumber consumption in 2035. Growth in reserve forests and riparian zones was excluded, and low confidence intervals were used for timber growth estimates, compared with high confidence intervals for harvest and consumption estimates. Results were considered for the U.S. in total and by three geographic regions (North, South, and West). In total, forest inventory growth in America exceeds timber harvests including incremental mass timber volumes. Even the most optimistic projections of mass timber growth will not exceed the lowest expected annual increases in the nation’s harvestable coniferous timber inventory.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Advanced Timber Construction Industry: A Review of 350 Multi-Storey Timber Projects from 2000–2021

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3006
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Svatoš-Ražnjevic, Hana
Orozco, Luis
Menges, Achim
Organization
University of Stuttgart
Editor
Brandner, Reinhard
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Multi-storey Timber Construction
Timber Buildings
Mass Timber Construction
Survey
Typologies
Trends and Perspectives
Timber Morphologies
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
Throughout the last two decades the timber building sector has experienced a steady growth in multi-storey construction. Although there has been a growing number of research focused on trends, benefits, and disadvantages in timber construction from various technical perspectives, so far there is no extensive literature on the trajectory of emerging architectural typologies. This paper presents an examination of architectural variety and spatial possibilities in current serial and modular multi-storey timber construction. It aims to draw a parallel between architectural characteristics and their relation to structural systems in timber. The research draws from a collection of 350 contemporary multi-storey timber building projects between 2000 and 2021. It consists of 300 built projects, 12 projects currently in construction, and 38 design proposals. The survey consists of quantitative and qualitative project data, as well as classification of the structural system, material, program, massing, and spatial organization of the projects. It then compares the different structural and design aspects to achieve a comprehensive overview of possibilities in timber construction. The outcome is an identification of the range of morphologies and a better understanding of the design space in current serial and modular multi-storey mass timber construction.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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The Possibility to Use Pine Timber Pieces with Small Size in the Production of Glulam Beams

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3042
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Application
Beams
Author
Dziurka, Dorota
Kawalerczyk, Jakub
Walkiewicz, Joanna
Derkowski, Adam
Mirski, Radoslaw
Organization
Poznan University of Life Sciences
Editor
Sadowski, Tomasz
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Beams
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Engineered Wood Products
Low-quality Timber
Pine
Structural Elements
Research Status
Complete
Series
Materials
Summary
Engineered wood products, such as glulam beams, attract much attention from the building industry in recent years. Therefore, there is a constant necessity to seek new models of structural beams, which assume the use of outsized sawn wood pieces as an alternative for the standard construction timber. Three variants of glulam beams, composed of the main yield and side boards arranged in various structures, were proposed. Moreover, the usefulness of wedge-jointed, small-sized timber pieces was also investigated. The manufactured beams were tested, in terms of their mechanical properties, such as bending strength, elastic energy, modulus of elasticity, and resilience. The outcomes have shown that the beams manufactured using wedge-bonded timber of lower grade do not deviate considerably from beams produced from homogeneous lamellas. Furthermore, the results of modulus of elasticity, in the case of the three-layered beams composed of both small-sized non-homogenous main yield and side boards, exceeded the requirements from EN 14080. It allowed us to classify the obtained materials as GL 32c, which is the highest grade specified within the standard.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Resilient Forests – Responsive Structures: Regenerative Silviculture and Experimental Mass Timber Components for the US Northeast

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3170
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Organization
Gray Organschi Architecture
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Bio-material Flow Analysis
Urban Bio-Building Economy
Hybrid Assembly
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Project contact is Andrew Ruff (United States)
Summary
The proposed project represents a three-year collaboration between Gray Organschi Architecture through its research and fabrication subsidiary JIG Design Build, the Yale Forests, and Odeh Engineers to develop experimental, laminated structural timber components using wood drawn from northeastern forests for potential future application in low to mid rise urban construction assemblies (IBC Types IV HT and IV C.) The project seeks to analyze anticipated yields and species distributions of regional forests that have been managed and harvested for a range of regenerative silvicultural objectives, such as disease mitigation, soil restoration, biodiversity, water quality, and carbon storage. From that bio-material flow analysis, a proto-typology of mixed-species layups will test the potential of the construction sector—through its adoption and commercial development of these experimental structural components, along with the regional forest management models that inform their configuration— to absorb the diversity of wood fiber drawn from a range of timber stands in the US Northeast. The immediate goal of this experimental process is to demonstrate the range of intrinsic qualities of the many species that populate our northeastern woods and to test their varying capacities to participate in a surging urban bio-building economy. The project team is committed to this research and experimentation as fundamental to the preservation and expansion of healthy forests in a resource constrained future in which conventional structural timber components engineered from single species may be supplemented by new hybrid assemblies in order to meet burgeoning regional and, potentially, global demand.
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Advancing Social Impact Using Mass Timber in Industrial Building Types

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3171
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Organization
Sustainable Forestry Initiative
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Industrial Building
Responsibly Managed Forests
Return on Investment
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Project contact is Annie Perkins (United States)
Summary
The mass timber sector needs to gain greater market share of the broader building industry in order to increase demand for wood procured from U.S. forestlands. This project helps to increase demand for mass timber in three key ways by: 1. tapping into the industrial building sector currently not leveraging wood 2. quantifying the social benefits of building with wood procured from responsibly managed forests 3. telling the story of how building with wood procured from responsibly managed forests contribute to social and environmental benefits. Through a collaboration of forest, sustainability and building experts, this project will: (1) provide a replicable, scalable roadmap leveraging the use of mass timber in a traditional industrial building application (2) quantify social Return on Investment (ROI) and act as a template for how an otherwise traditional industrial building can positively impact society (3) meet Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) and sustainability goals (4) promote healthy communities all while meeting urban design aesthetic criteria This innovative and unique, showcase-worthy project helps bridge the gap and tell the story of how building with wood procured from responsibly managed forests helps address numerous benefits in and beyond the forest. Furthermore, it will illustrate how these benefits can be realized when constructing in-demand, industrial buildings.
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Mass Timber Design in Minutes, not Months: A Hybrid Mass Timber Building Solution for Supply-Chain Integration

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3173
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Organization
Generate LLC
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Supply Chain Integration
Multifamily Sector
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Project contact is John Klein (United States)
Summary
Mass timber is gaining momentum in the US, with developers interested in exploring the technology as a solution for their projects—especially as the material is now code-approved for up to 18 stories. Yet, the Architecture, Construction and Engineering (AEC) industry is notably hesitant to adopt new building methods. The primary obstacle preventing developers from committing to mass timber is the associated risk that results from uncertainty and unfamiliarity with these systems. To address this, Generate has partnered with a seasoned consortium of mass-timber specialists: Swinterton’s Timberlab; KL&A Engineers and Builders; Niles Bolton Associates; Jordan & Skala Engineers; Waugh Thistleton Architects; Mass Timber Strategy; Olifant LLC; and WoodWorks. The team established that the main obstacles holding back mass timber from widespread use are: 1. Costs: Project stakeholders do not have cost data on which to base rule-of-thumb estimates of construction and operational costs. The US timber supply chain, lacking demand, fails to become a mature, reliable, and cost-effective industry. 2. Constructability: General Contractors are often unfamiliar with the means and methods to build mass timber and are unwilling to rely on a new supply chain. Project stakeholders are concerned by the upfront effort needed for the implementation of innovative, sustainable systems. 3. Design Limitations: Stakeholders do not have experience with mass timber structures to compete in the residential market against concrete/steel. Architects struggle to find compatible floor assemblies with acoustic and fire properties and lack the know-how to design efficient lateral systems. Certainty and predictability are needed in the mass timber construction space. An open-source, code-compliant, cost-effective, replicable system developed by an industry-leading consortium will streamline cost analysis and supply chain integration to enable large-scale deployment across the US. The target market for the proposed system will be the US multifamily sector in the 7-12 story range, which accounts for a total addressable market of 200M sf/year. The system will be designed for the major housing markets of Boston, Atlanta and Denver, and will serve as a template for the AEC industry.
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The New England Heat Modified Mass Timber Initiative

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3174
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Organization
IKD
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Regional Woods
Heat Modified Mass Timber
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Forest Service/USDA Wood Innovations Grants Recipient Point of Contact: Yugon Kim Location: Boston, Massachusetts
Summary
The New England Heat Modified Mass Timber Initiative is a private/public partnership that is both a materials research project with the aim of expanding timber building product applications for underutilized regional timber species as well as a public educational outreach program using a demonstration structure to educate the public about the benefits of timber construction using regional woods.
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Catalyzing Michigan Mass Timber Manufacture and Demand by Piloting Michigan-Sourced-and-Made Nail-Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3175
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Organization
Michigan State University
Year of Publication
2022
Material
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Local sourced
Local made
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Forest Service/USDA Wood Innovations Grants Recipient Point of Contact: Sandra Lupien Location: East Lansing, Michigan
Summary
Over the past decade, interest in and demand for mass timber have been increasing steadily across North America for the materials’ ability to support healthy forests and rural economies while creating beautiful, innovative structures that both benefit the people who live, work, and learn in them and improve the carbon footprints of our built environments. The MassTimber@MSU program – supported in large part by funding from the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) – harnesses stakeholder engagement, outreach, communications, research, and education to advance mass timber construction and manufacture in Michigan and the surrounding region. Since the program’s launch two years ago, increased outreach leveraging new mass timber buildings in the region – the Michigan State University (MSU) STEM facility, the Intro project in Cleveland, and the Ascent Tower in Milwaukee – has intensified mass timber buzz in Michigan, where architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) firms are reporting a steady stream of inquiries from developers studying mass timber for their projects. With this increased interest in mass timber construction come both concerns that demand could soon outstrip supply and significant interest in a secure Michigan-based supply of mass timber. Some Michigan forest products industry entities are investigating the potential of expanding to manufacture mass timber products like cross-laminated timber (CLT) and glue-laminated timber (glulam) but are hesitant to make the capital investment without formal evidence of regional demand for mass timber products generally as well as for such products made in Michigan from Michigan wood specifically. In addition, potential manufacturers need to better understand feedstock supply to determine the best location, scale, and mass timber product lines for Michigan mass timber. That means Michigan CLT and glulam won’t become a reality for at least 2-5 years. At the same time, State agencies are eager to quickly harness the forest health and economic development opportunities associated with using wood sourced from State, Federal, and private Michigan forestlands in Michigan-manufactured mass timber. Nail-laminated timber, a more species-agnostic form of mass timber panels that can be manufactured using nail guns on a project site or in a warehouse nearby, presents a unique “first-generation” mass timber opportunity for Michigan – one that can begin this year – that can help pave the way for larger scale operations in years to come. With this project we propose to demonstrate the use of Michigan-sourced-and-made NLT in two projects –Shophouse Park and the Great Lakes Boat Building School’s new building – in the Upper Peninsula. We will document the processes and outcomes of these projects and share theme – along with best practices – with key manufacturing, AEC industry, community development, and other stakeholders. We expect the project will increase market demand for mass timber, including Michigan-sourced-and-made mass timber, and catalyze Michigan-based manufacture of mass timber from wood sourced from Michigan and the surrounding Great Lakes. Surveying AEC and developer stakeholders at the start and end of the project will both inform our understanding of the project’s impact and provide evidence of demand to prospective manufacturers.
Less detail

Increasing Acceptance of Northern Hardwood Lumber into Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) by Repurposing Low-Grade Red Maple

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3176
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Organization
Michigan Technological University
Year of Publication
2022
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Northern Hardwood
Red Maple
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Forest Service/USDA Wood Innovations Grants Recipient Point of Contact: Xinfeng Xie Location: Houghton, Michigan
Summary
Hardwoods dominate the eastern forests in the U.S. and support the hardwood lumber industry of the nation. However, the fast-growing mass timber market has not been shared with the hardwood lumber that has similar environmental benefits as the softwoods. Two leading factors preventing hardwood lumber from entering into the CLT market are the difficulties perceived by the industry in sourcing large-volume structural hardwood lumber and in the compatibility of hardwood lumber with the existing manufacturing infrastructures designed for softwoods. This project aims at addressing those concerns through demonstration of repurposing commercially available low appearance grade red maple into CLT laminations using finger-jointing and existing structural lumber grading methods and establishing a basic CLT type of red maple with confirmed design values according to ANSI/APA PRG 320 standard. Through this collaboration of the industries and two universities located at the heart of U.S. hardwood lumber industry, the project results will provide base-line references for both hardwood lumber producers and CLT manufactures in using northern red maple for CLT.
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127 records – page 1 of 13.