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Structural Properties of Commercial Australian Plantation Hardwood CLT

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3355
Year of Publication
2023
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Gutierrez, Mateo
Ettelaei, Azin
Kotlarewski, Nathan
Lee, Michael
Organization
Cusp Building Solutions
University of Tasmania
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2023
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Plantation
Hardwood
Eucalyptus nitens
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
Significant volumes of plantation hardwood are available in Australia to produce value-added engineered wood products such as cross-laminated timber (CLT). To validate the possibility of utilising this available resource, the bending structural properties of plantation Eucalyptus nitens solid board and finger-jointed feedstock were measured. The studied CLT panels produced from finger-jointed lamellas were subjected to bending strength, bending stiffness, rolling shear strength in bending, and pure rolling shear tests to obtain characteristic design values. Solid and finger-jointed timber test results suggested that boards used in longitudinal lamellas have a bending strength of 36.0 MPa and a modulus of elasticity (MOE) of 13,000 MPa. Finger-jointed timber in crossed lamellas presented a declared bending strength of 25.0 MPa. CLT panels showed a bending strength of 24.0 MPa and a rolling shear strength of 2.0 MPa. The experimental results for the CLT panels evidenced that the CLT bending stiffness matches up very well with the modelled results when an MOE of 13,000 MPa is used to describe the stiffness of longitudinal boards. The results presented in this study establish a basis for the commercial use of Australian plantation hardwood CLT in structural applications such as floors and roofs in commercial and residential buildings.
Online Access
Free
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Increasing Mass Timber Consumption in the U.S. and Sustainable Timber Supply

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2888
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Comnick, Jeff
Rogers, Luke
Wheiler, Kent
Organization
University of Washington
Editor
Lauteri, Marco
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Mass Timber
Embodied Carbon
Sustainable Timber Supply
Forest Inventory
Reforestation
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
Mass timber products are growing in popularity as a substitute for steel and concrete, reducing embodied carbon in the built environment. This trend has raised questions about the sustainability of the U.S. timber supply. Our research addresses concerns that rising demand for mass timber products may result in unsustainable levels of harvesting in coniferous forests in the United States. Using U.S. Department of Agriculture U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data, incremental U.S. softwood (coniferous) timber harvests were projected to supply a high-volume estimate of mass timber and dimensional lumber consumption in 2035. Growth in reserve forests and riparian zones was excluded, and low confidence intervals were used for timber growth estimates, compared with high confidence intervals for harvest and consumption estimates. Results were considered for the U.S. in total and by three geographic regions (North, South, and West). In total, forest inventory growth in America exceeds timber harvests including incremental mass timber volumes. Even the most optimistic projections of mass timber growth will not exceed the lowest expected annual increases in the nation’s harvestable coniferous timber inventory.
Online Access
Free
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Advanced Timber Construction Industry: A Review of 350 Multi-Storey Timber Projects from 2000–2021

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3006
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Svatoš-Ražnjevic, Hana
Orozco, Luis
Menges, Achim
Organization
University of Stuttgart
Editor
Brandner, Reinhard
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Multi-storey Timber Construction
Timber Buildings
Mass Timber Construction
Survey
Typologies
Trends and Perspectives
Timber Morphologies
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
Throughout the last two decades the timber building sector has experienced a steady growth in multi-storey construction. Although there has been a growing number of research focused on trends, benefits, and disadvantages in timber construction from various technical perspectives, so far there is no extensive literature on the trajectory of emerging architectural typologies. This paper presents an examination of architectural variety and spatial possibilities in current serial and modular multi-storey timber construction. It aims to draw a parallel between architectural characteristics and their relation to structural systems in timber. The research draws from a collection of 350 contemporary multi-storey timber building projects between 2000 and 2021. It consists of 300 built projects, 12 projects currently in construction, and 38 design proposals. The survey consists of quantitative and qualitative project data, as well as classification of the structural system, material, program, massing, and spatial organization of the projects. It then compares the different structural and design aspects to achieve a comprehensive overview of possibilities in timber construction. The outcome is an identification of the range of morphologies and a better understanding of the design space in current serial and modular multi-storey mass timber construction.
Online Access
Free
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Possibility to Use Short Sawn Timber in the Production of Glued Laminated Beams

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3021
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Market and Adoption
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Dziurka, Dorota
Kulinski, Marcin
Trocinski, Adrian
Mirski, Radoslaw
Organization
Poznan University of Life Sciences
Editor
Corradi, Marco
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Structural Glulam Elements
Structural Beams
Strength Properties
Research Status
Complete
Series
Materials
Summary
Numerous studies have shown that the geometry of micro-joints significantly affects the strength of the so joined timber element. The bending strength increases by creating a larger bonding area by increasing the length of the wedge joint. Although this type of joint has been successfully used for many years, it can still be troublesome to make. For these reasons, the present study investigated an easy-to-fabricate wedge joint, which we folded during the beams’ formation and glued with the same adhesive as the individual lamellas. Although the research has not fully answered all the questions relevant to both scientific and technological curiosity, it indicates the great potential of this solution. Following the principle adopted in the ongoing wood optimisation work, we concluded that the beams of the target cross-section should be produced, and it should only be possible to cut them to a certain length. In this approach, we only removed defects at critical points for the beam structure and, in this way, up to 30% of the timber processed could be saved or better utilised.
Online Access
Free
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Wood waste utilization and associated product development from under-utilized low-quality wood and its prospects in Nepal

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3030
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Environmental Impact
Market and Adoption
Author
Pandey, Sudip
Organization
Madan Bhandari University of Science and Technology
Publisher
Springer
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Topic
Environmental Impact
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Wood Waste
Waste Utilization
Low-Quality Wood
Engineered Products
Research Status
Complete
Series
SN Applied Sciences
Summary
Wood waste has the potential to be used in making a variety of goods, including engineered wood products, energy generation (heat and electricity), mulching, and animal bedding. These inexpensive and underutilized feedstocks have the potential to increase the added value of wood wastes. This paper aims to review the different possibilities on wood waste utilization and their prospects in Nepal. This information helps to find the proper way for future development of wood waste to deliver the best outcomes for the environment and economy. The review is based on an in-depth examination of credible literature and official statistical data. The study showed Nepal has not utilized wood waste except for firewood and a few engineered wood products. The problem with wood waste is the lack of adaptation of advanced technologies and the lack of institutions concerned with the benefits of utilization of those waste. This review concludes that wood waste can be a potential source for the production of different materials but the government should develop effective waste management rules to maximize the value of wood waste resources.
Online Access
Free
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The Possibility to Use Pine Timber Pieces with Small Size in the Production of Glulam Beams

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3042
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Application
Beams
Author
Dziurka, Dorota
Kawalerczyk, Jakub
Walkiewicz, Joanna
Derkowski, Adam
Mirski, Radoslaw
Organization
Poznan University of Life Sciences
Editor
Sadowski, Tomasz
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Beams
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Engineered Wood Products
Low-quality Timber
Pine
Structural Elements
Research Status
Complete
Series
Materials
Summary
Engineered wood products, such as glulam beams, attract much attention from the building industry in recent years. Therefore, there is a constant necessity to seek new models of structural beams, which assume the use of outsized sawn wood pieces as an alternative for the standard construction timber. Three variants of glulam beams, composed of the main yield and side boards arranged in various structures, were proposed. Moreover, the usefulness of wedge-jointed, small-sized timber pieces was also investigated. The manufactured beams were tested, in terms of their mechanical properties, such as bending strength, elastic energy, modulus of elasticity, and resilience. The outcomes have shown that the beams manufactured using wedge-bonded timber of lower grade do not deviate considerably from beams produced from homogeneous lamellas. Furthermore, the results of modulus of elasticity, in the case of the three-layered beams composed of both small-sized non-homogenous main yield and side boards, exceeded the requirements from EN 14080. It allowed us to classify the obtained materials as GL 32c, which is the highest grade specified within the standard.
Online Access
Free
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A finger-joint based edge connection for the weak direction of CLT plates

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3149
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Tapia, Cristóbal
Claus, Marian
Aicher, Simon
Organization
University of Stuttgart
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Bonded Edge Connection
Robotic Milling
Screw-gluing
Biaxiality
Finger-joint
Gap-filling PUR Adhesive
Research Status
Complete
Series
Construction and Building Materials
Summary
A new connection concept for joining cross-laminated timber (CLT) plates in their secondary direction is presented. The connection consists of two laminated veneer lumber (LVL) gusset plates with finger-joint-like profiles milled on one side which are glued onto the outermost layers of the CLT. It is demonstrated that the joint represents a stiff moment resistant connection, enabling the activation of the normally underutilized biaxiality of CLT plates and expanding the design freedom of architects and engineers. The concept was analyzed by means of analytical and finite element (FE) models for two geometry alternatives, differing in either a 2D or 3D tapered finger profile. The 3D tapered finger profile produced a stress reduction of around 5% in the region of stress concentration and a more even shear stress distribution on the bonded surface. Thereafter, four specimens were manufactured – two of each geometry alternative – and then tested in four- and three-point bending setups in order to assess the behavior at pure bending as well as at combined moment and shear loading, respectively. At pure bending, the studied connection delivered bending capacities of 100% of the characteristic value of the unjointed CLT material. For the case of moment and shear loading, the global capacity was determined by a bending failure in the CLT region subjected to maximum moment, while the joints remained unbroken. Measured deformations and strains during the tests validated the FE model, which can be used to further develop the connection concept, which allows for a full activation of the biaxial behavior of large-span CLT floors.
Online Access
Free
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Making Mass Timber Work for High-Rise Residential in BC - The Developers’ Guide to Cost, Schedule & Code Implications

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3164
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Cost
General Information
Market and Adoption
Design and Systems
Author
McDonough, Mike
Bellisomo, Andrea
Campbell, Andrew
Souza, Renato
Jackson, Nicholas
Lee, Roy
Wilson, Rob
Cotter, Patrick
Mittal, Kaanshika
Falls, Connor
Johnson, William
Dionne, Ivan
Jacques, Chris
Carson, Andy
Wilson, Daniel
Noussis, Thomas
Marks, Pauls
Harmsworth, Andrew
Organization
Axiom Builders Inc.
BTY Group
WSP
ZGF Architects Inc.
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Book/Guide
Topic
Cost
General Information
Market and Adoption
Design and Systems
Keywords
Cost
Schedule
Construction Method
Code Implications
Research Status
Complete
Notes
Industry Contributors:
Francis, Glenn (Termel Industries Ltd.)
Kalesnikoff
Element5
Structurelam Mass Timber Corporation
Summary
Mass timber continues to be a hot topic of discussion within the development industry in British Columbia. The International Building Code now allows for mass timber to be used for buildings up to 18 storeys. The change allows developers to consider it for residential multi-family projects and prompts one big question: “What will it cost to build my high-rise project with mass timber in our market?” The team that developed this report represents an independent team of architects, structural engineers, quantity surveyors, and a general contractor. Consultants from fire, building code, and acoustic industries also provided expertise to the study. In late Fall 2020, we formed an industry group in Vancouver to answer this question with an exclusive focus on the local market. We identified a need for a significant shift in the local industry’s building philosophy when using mass timber as a structural material. Our goal was to assess the viability of mass timber for this product type in British Columbia by comparing the cost, construction methods, and schedules of a typical concrete high-rise in Vancouver to those for the same building using mass timber as the principal structural material. To undertake the study, the group created virtual models of the base building and conceptual models for side-by-side detailed comparisons. While gaining in popularity, building a high-rise with engineered mass timber remains an unconventional method in British Columbia. To support the industry, we wanted to fill in gaps in data to better understand and help solve the challenges of working with new materials and techniques needed for mass timber construction at scale. This study presents what we learned about cost, schedule, and code implications as well as methodology efficiencies. It must be noted that the study took place over a period in Q2 and Q3 of 2021 when lumber and steel prices – two of the principal materials – experienced high volatility in supply and record increases in price. Since every building project and market is unique, the report makes no claims concerning specific cost or time frame. Rather, it identifies what to consider in creating a reliable framework for optimizing costs and schedules while meeting code requirements when building residential high-rise mass timber buildings.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Resilient Forests – Responsive Structures: Regenerative Silviculture and Experimental Mass Timber Components for the US Northeast

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3170
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Organization
Gray Organschi Architecture
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Bio-material Flow Analysis
Urban Bio-Building Economy
Hybrid Assembly
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Project contact is Andrew Ruff (United States)
Summary
The proposed project represents a three-year collaboration between Gray Organschi Architecture through its research and fabrication subsidiary JIG Design Build, the Yale Forests, and Odeh Engineers to develop experimental, laminated structural timber components using wood drawn from northeastern forests for potential future application in low to mid rise urban construction assemblies (IBC Types IV HT and IV C.) The project seeks to analyze anticipated yields and species distributions of regional forests that have been managed and harvested for a range of regenerative silvicultural objectives, such as disease mitigation, soil restoration, biodiversity, water quality, and carbon storage. From that bio-material flow analysis, a proto-typology of mixed-species layups will test the potential of the construction sector—through its adoption and commercial development of these experimental structural components, along with the regional forest management models that inform their configuration— to absorb the diversity of wood fiber drawn from a range of timber stands in the US Northeast. The immediate goal of this experimental process is to demonstrate the range of intrinsic qualities of the many species that populate our northeastern woods and to test their varying capacities to participate in a surging urban bio-building economy. The project team is committed to this research and experimentation as fundamental to the preservation and expansion of healthy forests in a resource constrained future in which conventional structural timber components engineered from single species may be supplemented by new hybrid assemblies in order to meet burgeoning regional and, potentially, global demand.
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Advancing Social Impact Using Mass Timber in Industrial Building Types

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3171
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Organization
Sustainable Forestry Initiative
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Industrial Building
Responsibly Managed Forests
Return on Investment
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Project contact is Annie Perkins (United States)
Summary
The mass timber sector needs to gain greater market share of the broader building industry in order to increase demand for wood procured from U.S. forestlands. This project helps to increase demand for mass timber in three key ways by: 1. tapping into the industrial building sector currently not leveraging wood 2. quantifying the social benefits of building with wood procured from responsibly managed forests 3. telling the story of how building with wood procured from responsibly managed forests contribute to social and environmental benefits. Through a collaboration of forest, sustainability and building experts, this project will: (1) provide a replicable, scalable roadmap leveraging the use of mass timber in a traditional industrial building application (2) quantify social Return on Investment (ROI) and act as a template for how an otherwise traditional industrial building can positively impact society (3) meet Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) and sustainability goals (4) promote healthy communities all while meeting urban design aesthetic criteria This innovative and unique, showcase-worthy project helps bridge the gap and tell the story of how building with wood procured from responsibly managed forests helps address numerous benefits in and beyond the forest. Furthermore, it will illustrate how these benefits can be realized when constructing in-demand, industrial buildings.
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127 records – page 1 of 13.