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61 records – page 1 of 7.

Analysis of Cost Comparison and Effects of Change Orders During Construction: Study of a Mass Timber and a Concrete Building Project

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2730
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Ahmed, Shafayet
Arocho, Ingrid
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Cost
Keywords
Concrete Building
Cost Assessment
Change Orders
Construction
Cost Comparative Analysis
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Building Engineering
Summary
In recent years, timber has been considered as an alternative source of building material because of its sustainability and design efficiency. However, the cost competitiveness of timber buildings is still under study due to the lack of available cost information. This paper presents a comprehensive cost comparative analysis of a mass timber building mainly developed with cross-laminated timber (CLT). The actual construction cost of the project is compared with the modeled cost of the same building designed as a concrete option. The result shows that the construction cost of timber building is 6.43% higher than the modeled concrete building. The study further investigated the change orders associated with the project and found that the total cost of change orders contributed 5.62% to the final construction cost of mass timber building. The study is helpful to provide insight into the construction cost of typical mass timber buildings. It also can be used as a guide for the project owners to make decisions regarding their initial investments on a mass timber project.
Online Access
Free
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Analysis of Economic Feasibility of Ash and Maple Lamella Production for Glued Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2225
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Cost
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)

Analysis of Military Protective Structures: A Framework for Quantifying Cost-Benefit of Existing and New Protective Systems

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1432
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Design and Systems
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Crofoot, Henry
Organization
Colorado School of Mines
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Design and Systems
Cost
Keywords
Protection
Military
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The United States military is constantly evolving into an organization equipped by the latest technology and seeking the greatest protection per cost ratio for its members in harm’s way. While new protection methods are steadily produced by the Engineering Research and Development Command, most protective structure options fall into either very expensive or very labor-intensive structures with widely varying degrees of reusability and transportability. Furthermore, there is currently no widely accepted quantitative approach to help the decision-making process when choosing which system to use in a specific condition. This study will seek to create a framework which can be used to aid the decision-making process based on quantitative calculation of cost benefit of various protective systems. The framework will encompass resource metrics of man-hours, machine hours, and monetary cost. The calculations and assessments will also be affected by quantitative evaluations of military situations which can increase or decrease each value of resource metric. This study will also investigate the potential of using a mass timber product, namely Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) panels, as a protective structure that may be useful in certain military situations. While not designed to replace other systems, it is another option for military commanders and staffs to consider when choosing the most efficient and economical protection method for their soldiers.
Online Access
Free
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Artificial Neural Network for Assessment of Energy Consumption and Cost for Cross Laminated Timber Office Building in Severe Cold Regions

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1206
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Energy Performance
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Dong, Qi
Xing, Kai
Zhang, Hongrui
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Energy Performance
Cost
Keywords
Energy Consumption
Office Buildings
Severe Cold Regions
Artificial Neural Network
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
This paper aims to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the energy consumption and cost of cross laminated timber (CLT) office buildings in severe cold regions during the early stage of architectural design. Eleven variables were selected as input variables including building form and construction variables, and the values of input variables were determined by local building standards and surveys. ANNs were trained by the simulation data and Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) method was used to select training datasets for the ANN training. The best ANN was obtained by analyzing the output variables and the number of hidden layer neurons. The results showed that the ANN with multiple outputs presented better prediction performance than the ANN with single output. Moreover, the number of hidden layer neurons in ANN should be greater than five and preferably 10, and the best mean square error (MSE) value was 1.957 × 103. In addition, it was found that the time of predicting building energy consumption and cost by ANN was 80% shorter than that of traditional building energy consumption simulation and cost calculation method.
Online Access
Free
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Calculative Cost and Process Analysis of Timber-Concrete-Composite Ceilings with Focus on Effort and Performance Values for Cost Calculations of Multi-Storey Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1753
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Cost
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Ceilings
Author
Koppelhuber, Joerg
Leitenbauer, Alexander
Heck, Detlef
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Ceilings
Topic
Cost
Keywords
Prefabrication
Multi-Storey
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 5006-5014
Summary
Composite structures use the advantages of two materials – timber and concrete – and improve the efficiency of a material application. Especially the concept of timber-concrete-composite ceilings has synergetic effects to achieve an effective ratio of thickness to span with high cost effectiveness simultaneously. Following the systematic...
Online Access
Free
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Carbon Value Engineering: Integrated Carbon and Cost Reduction Strategies for Building Design

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2268
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Environmental Impact
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Beams
Author
Robati, Mehdi
Oldfield, Philip F.
Nezhad, Ali Akbar
Carmichael, David
Organization
UNSW Sydney
Multiplex Australasia
Publisher
Cooperative Research for Low Carbon Living
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Beams
Topic
Environmental Impact
Cost
Keywords
Value Engineering
Embodied Carbon
Hybrid Life Cycle Assessment
Capital Cost
Environmentally-extended Input-Output Analysis
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The research presents a Carbon Value Engineering framework. This is a quantitative value analysis method, which not only estimates cost but also considers the carbon impact of alternative design solutions. It is primarily concerned with reducing cost and carbon impacts of developed design projects; that is, projects where the design is already a completed to a stage where a Bill of Quantity (BoQ) is available, material quantities are known, and technical understanding of the building is developed. This research demonstrates that adopting this integrated carbon and cost method was able to reduce embodied carbon emissions by 63-267 kgCO2-e/m2 (8-36%) when maintaining a concrete frame, and 72-427 kgCO2-e/m2 (10-57%) when switching to a more novel whole timber frame. With a GFA of 43,229 m2 these savings equate to an overall reduction of embodied carbon in the order of 2,723 – 18,459 tonnes of CO2-e. Costs savings for both alternatives were in the order of $127/m2 which equates to a 10% reduction in capital cost. For comparison purposes the case study was also tested with a high-performance façade. This reduced lifecycle carbon emissions in the order of 255 kgCO2-e/m2, over 50 years, but at an additional capital cost, due to the extra materials. What this means is strategies to reduce embodied carbon even late in the design stage can provide carbon savings comparable, and even greater than, more traditional strategies to reduce operational emissions over a building’s effective life.
Online Access
Free
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The Case for Tall Wood Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue835
Edition
Second
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
General Information
Cost
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Organization
Michael Green Architecture
Edition
Second
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Book/Guide
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
General Information
Cost
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Keywords
FFTT
Tall Wood
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The report describes a new structural system in wood that is the first significant challenger to concrete and steel structures since their inception in tall building design more than a century ago. The introduction of these ideas is fundamentally driven by the need to find safe, carbon-neutral and sustainable alternatives to the incumbent structural materials of the urban world. The market for these ideas is quite simply enormous. The proposed solutions have significant capacity to revolutionize the building industry to address the major challenges of climate change, urbanization, sustainable development and world housing needs.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Characterizing and Quantifying Environmental and Economic Benefits of Cross Laminated Timber Buildings across the U.S.

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2564
Topic
Cost
Energy Performance
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Building Envelope
Organization
Colorado School of Mines
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Building Envelope
Topic
Cost
Energy Performance
Keywords
Numerical Analysis
Whole Building Energy Model
Building Envelope
Monitoring
Commercial Buildings
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Project contact is Paulo Tabares at the Colorado School of Mines
Summary
Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) is a mass timber material that has the potential to expand the wood building market in the U.S. However, new sustainable building technologies need extensive field and numerical validation quantifying environmental and economic benefits of using CLT as a sustainable building material so it can be broadly adopted in the building community. These benefits will also be projected nationwide across the United States once state-of-the-art software is validated and will include showcasing and documenting synergies between multiple technologies in the building envelope and heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. However, there are no such studies for CLT. The objective of this project is to quantify and showcase environmental and economic benefits of CLT as a sustainable building material in actual (and simulated) commercial buildings across the entire United States by doing: (1) on-site monitoring of at least four CLT buildings, (2) whole building energy model validation, (3) optimization of the performance and design for CLT buildings and (4) comparison with traditional building envelopes. This knowledge gap needs to be filled to position CLT on competitive grounds with steel and concrete and is the motivation for this study.
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CLT Feasibility Study: A Study of Alternative Construction Methods in the Pacific Northwest

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1896
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Design and Systems
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Floors
Walls
Organization
Mahlum Architects
Walsh Construction
Coughlin Porter Lundeen
Publisher
Seattle Department of Construction & Inspections (SDCI)
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Floors
Walls
Topic
Design and Systems
Cost
Keywords
Building Code
Fire Tests
Seismic
Tall Wood
Multi-Story
Cost comparison
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This study explores the use of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) in a 10-story residential building as an alternative building method to concrete and steel construction. The study is not meant to be exhaustive, rather a preliminary investigation to test the economic viability of utilizing this new material to increase density, walkability and sustainable responsiveness in our built environment. Based on international precedent, CLT is an applicable material for low-rise, as well as mid-rise to high-rise construction and has a lighter environmental footprint than traditional concrete and steel construction systems. Cross-laminated timber is a large format solid wood panel building system originating from central Europe. As a construction system it is similar to precast concrete in which large prefabricated panels are lifted by crane and installed using either a balloon frame or platform frame system. The advantages to using CLT are many, but the main benefits include: shorter construction times, fewer skilled laborers, better tolerances and quality, safer work environment, utilization of regional, sustainable materials, and reduction of carbon footprint of buildings. As a new, unproven material in the Pacific Northwest, this study investigates the cost competitiveness of CLT versus traditional materials for “low high-rise” buildings.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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A comparative study between glulam and concrete columns in view of design, economy and environment

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3134
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Cost
Environmental Impact
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Columns
Author
Hassan, Osama A.B.
A.A., Nour Emad
Abdulahad, Gabriel
Organization
Linköping University
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Columns
Topic
Cost
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Sustainability
Eurocode
Greenhouse Gases
Cost Estimate
Research Status
Complete
Series
Case Studies in Construction Materials
Summary
In this paper, it is attempted to study possible sustainability solutions for building structures. In this context, comparisons are made between two load-bearing columns with different building materials – glued laminated timber and concrete – with regard to structural design, economic consequences and the emission of greenhouse gases. In terms of structural design, the results show that with small axial forces, glulam columns will result in smaller cross-sectional areas compared to concrete columns. However, at larger axial forces, concrete columns will result in smaller cross-sectional areas than glulam columns. An increased column length also means larger dimensions for glulam columns, but this does not always apply to concrete columns. With respect to environmental impact, it is shown that using glulam columns is the more environmentally friendly option. From an economic point of view, the cost estimates for glulam and concrete columns may vary depending on the country and the abundance of the construction material. In Sweden, a forest-rich country, it is shown that the costs for both column types are quite similar considering small axial loads. At higher axial loading, concrete is generally the cheaper alternative.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

61 records – page 1 of 7.