The use of timber–concrete composite (TCC) bridges in the United States dates back to approximately 1924 when the first bridge was constructed. Since then a large number of bridges have been built, of which more than 1,400 remain in service. The oldest bridges still in service are now more than 84 years old and predominately consist of two different TCC systems. The first system is a slab-type system that includes a longitudinal nail-laminated deck composite with a concrete deck top layer. The second system is a stringer system that includes either sawn timber or glulam stringers supporting a concrete deck top layer. The records indicate that most of the TCC highway bridges were constructed during the period of 1930–1960. The study presented in this paper discusses the experience and per-formance of these bridge systems in the US. The analysis is based on a review of the relevant literature and databases complemented with field inspections conducted within various research projects. Along with this review, a historical overview of the codes and guidelines available for the design of TCC bridges in the US is also included. The analysis undertaken showed that TCC bridges are an effective and durable design alternative for highway bridges once they have shown a high performance level, in some situations after more than 80 years in service with a low maintenance level.
In this paper a precise model is established for deflection prediction of mechanically jointed beams with partial composite action. High accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated through comparison with a comprehensive finite element (FE) modelling for a timber-concrete partial composite beam. Next, the obtained numerical results are compared with gamma-method, a well-known simplified solution for timber engineers according to the Eurocode 5. Validity and accuracy level of the gamma-method are investigated for various boundary conditions as well as different values of beam length-to-depth ratio, and discussed in details.
A major problem in light-weight timber floors is their insufficient performance coping with impact noise in low frequencies. There are no prefabricated solutions available in Australia and New Zealand. To rectify this and enable the implementation of light-weight timber floors, a structural floor was designed and built in laminated veneer lumber (LVL). The floor was evaluated in a laboratory setting based on its behaviour and then modified with suspended ceilings and different floor toppings. Twenty-nine different floor compositions were tested. The bare floor could not reach the minimum requirement set by the Building Code of Australia (BCA) but with additional layers, a sufficient result of R'w+Ctr 53 dB and L’nT,w + CI 50 dB was reached. Doubling of the concrete mass added a marginal improvement. With concrete toppings and suspended ceiling it is possible to reach the goal in airborne and impact sound insulation. The best result was achieved by combining of additional mass and different construction layers.
The advantages of the two different building construction materials, timber and concrete, can be used effectively in adhesive-bonded timber-concrete composite constructions. The long-term behavior was investigated experimentally on small-scale shear and bond specimens under artificial, alternating climatic conditions and on fullscale specimens under natural climatic conditions for an application in construction practice. The development of the shear strength and the deformation behavior under permanent loads were studied, focusing on the different material behavior of wood and concrete regarding changes in temperature and moisture. The general applicability of adhesivebonded timber-concrete composites in construction practice was proved in the investigations.
In timber–concrete composite members with notched connections, the notches act as the shear connections between the timber and the concrete part, and have to carry the shear flow necessary for composite action. The shear transfer through the notches generates shear and tensile stresses in both parts of the composite member, which may lead to brittle failure and to an abrupt collapse of the structure. Although simplified design formulas already exist, some structural aspects are still not clear, and a reliable design model is missing. This paper summarizes current design approaches and presents analytical models to understand the shear-carrying mechanism, to estimate the shear stresses acting in the timber and concrete, and to predict failure. The analysis concentrates on three problems: the shearing-off failure of the timber close to the notch, the shear failure of the concrete, and the influence of the shear flow on the gap opening between the timber and concrete. Parts of the model calculations could be compared to experimental observations. The conclusions of this paper contribute to improving current design approaches.
In timber-concrete composite systems, timber and concrete are inherently brittle materials that behave linearly elastic in both tension and bending. However, the shear connection between the members can exhibit significant ductility. It is therefore possible to develop timber-concrete composite systems with ductile connection that behave in a ductile fashion. This study illustrates the use of an elastic-perfectly plastic analytical approach to this problem. In addition, the study proposes an incremental method for predicting the nonlinear load-deflection response of the composite system. The accuracy of the analytical model is confirmed with a computer model, and numerical solutions of the analytical model are compared to experimental results from the bending tests conducted by previous researchers. Reasonable agreement is found from the comparisons, which validates the capacity of the analytical model in predicting the structural behaviour of the timber-concrete composite systems in both elastic and post-elastic stages.
In the construction of modern multi-storey mass timber structures, a composite floor system commonly specified by structural engineers is the timber–concrete composite (TCC) system, where a mass timber beam or mass timber panel (MTP) is connected to a concrete slab with mechanical connectors. The design of TCC floor systems has not been addressed in timber design standards due to a lack of suitable analytical models for predicting the serviceability and safety performance of these systems. Moreover, the interlayer connection properties have a large influence on the structural performance of a TCC system. These connection properties are often generated by testing. In this paper, an analytical approach for designing a TCC floor system is proposed that incorporates connection models to predict connection properties from basic connection component properties such as embedment and withdrawal strength/stiffness of the connector, thereby circumventing the need to perform connection tests. The analytical approach leads to the calculation of effective bending stiffness, forces in the connectors, and extreme stresses in concrete and timber of the TCC system, and can be used in design to evaluate allowable floor spans under specific design loads and criteria. An extensive parametric analysis was also conducted following the analytical procedure to investigate the TCC connection and system behaviour. It was observed that the screw spacing and timber thickness remain the most important parameters which significantly influence the TCC system behaviour.
Timber-concrete composite (TCC) ceilings build on the idea of making use of the advantageous properties of both materials symbiotically. While concrete, as the upper layer, is used to absorb the compression forces, wood is used in the lower layer to absorb the tensile forces. Many systems have been developed with special attention paid to solutions with both a continuous concrete and wood layer. This article introduces a new system developed with the primary focus set on the most efficient material use by introducing a free space between the concrete and the wood layer using special vault shaped moldings. The first part of the paper contains an introduction including a short overview of different embodiments of TCC floor systems. The second part focuses on the design of the new system and gives an overview of the estimated structural performance. In the third part the environmental performance of the new system is discussed in comparison to chosen existing systems focusing at the the whole life-cycle including a re-use (A-D).
Vibrations induced by people walking is one of the most important issue in timber floor design. Low natural frequency and low mass require a careful analysis in order to prevent significant annoyance and to guarantee an acceptable human comfort. This paper is concerned with the assessment of vibration performance of a timber-concrete composite timber floor and a cross laminated timber floor used in two timber buildings under construction in Trento (Italy). Different approaches suggested by Standards and literature were employed: analytical methods, numerical analyses and laboratory tests. About analytical methods the uniformed distributed load deflection criterion (ULD), the Eurocode 5 criterion and some criterions from literature were compared, whereas the Vibration Dose Value (VDV) method, as suggested by ISO 10137, was used for the numerical models and the laboratory tests. The numerical analyses were carried out by means of a finite element modelling. The load due to footfall was simulated by static and dynamic vertical forces. The laboratory tests were characterized by thirty walking tests for each floor. Impact testing with modal hammer was also undertaken in order to investigate the dynamic properties of the specimens. All results are compared and discussed.
The research study focuses on different strengthening techniques for timber concrete composites (TCC) using different types of wire and wire mesh integrated with a layer of epoxy on a timber core embedded in concrete using experimental and analytical procedure. The impact of TCC on axial compression performance, modulus of elasticity, failure mode and post failure behavior and ductility were compared to reference concrete specimens. Different types of wire and wire mesh used in strengthening of the timber core, timber core size and reinforcement in the concrete cylinder were all parameters considered in this study. Timing of application of the epoxy on the wire strengthened timber core was very important. For structural applications, where the weight reduction and ductility as well as post failure endurance are essential, the development of this composite is recommended. The ratio of the ductility index to the weight is discussed. The light weight of the timber composite, and the increased ductility were noted in this study. An equation to estimate the axial compression capacity of the strengthened timber concrete composite was developed in this study. This study will pave the way for further applications for timber concrete composite aiming at reducing dead weight of concrete and the reducing the amount of concrete and steel in construction.