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41 records – page 2 of 5.

Evaluation of Bending Performance of Nail Laminated and Dowel Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2309
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Design and Systems
Mechanical Properties
Material
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Roofs
Bridges and Spans
Wood Building Systems
Author
Ogunrinde, Olayemi
Publisher
University of New Brunswick
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Thesis
Material
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Roofs
Bridges and Spans
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Fasteners
Fastener Type
Fastening Pattern
Fastening Spacing
Apparent Modulus of Elasticity
Apparent Modulus of Rupture
Withdrawal Capacity
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Dowel-type fastener-laminated timber, such as nail laminated timber (NLT) and dowel laminated timber (DLT), is gaining back popularity in timber construction in the world, which can be used for floors, roofs and walls of a building, and bridge decks. One of its advantages over other glue laminated mass timber products, such as glue laminated timber (GLT) and cross laminated timber (CLT), is its environmentally friendly nature. In recent years, proportion of mid-rise structures built with laminated timber products has increased, especially in North America. This research was mainly aimed at examining the effects of fastener types (nail and wooden dowel), fastening patterns (straight and zigzag) and spacing on the mechanical performance of dowel-type fastener-laminated timber. To this end, three phases of research were conducted. The first phase examined the withdrawal capacity (WC) of wooden dowels in DLT in terms of pilot hole diameter and dowel swelling. Spruce-Pine-Fir wood substrate and 6-mm-diameter maple wooden dowels were used. Results showed that the group made of 5-mm pilot holes and 1% moisture content (MC) dowels had the largest WC of 507N, which was 87% higher than that group of 6-mm pilot holes and 15% MC dowels. The second phase studied the flexural properties of downscaled 3-layer laminated wood specimens connected by nails and wooden dowels and bonded by adhesive. The fastening spacing and fastener type were also examined. Results from the third-point bending tests showed that the 60-mm-spacing NLT specimens had an average MOEapp of 10,145 MPa, which was only 2% and 1% higher than 85-mm-spacing ones, and an average MORapp of 75 MPa, which was 9% and 4% higher than 110-mm-spacing ones. While for the fastener type, DLT had an average MOEapp of 10,575 MPa and MORapp of 78 MPa, which were 6% and 4%, respectively, higher than NLT one. As for the DLT, the zigzag pattern performed better than the straight one. Findings also revealed that NLT had a lower MOEapp variability than DLT. The final phase investigated the mechanical performance of full-scale 7-layer NLT, DLT and GLT beam-type specimens based on the findings from the second phase. The influencing factors considered were fastener spacing (250 mm and 450 mm), fastener types (nails and wooden dowels), and fastening pattern (parallel and inclined nailing). Results from the third-point load bending tests showed that group NS2 made with 89-mm-long nails and 250-mm nailing spacing had average MOEapp and MORapp of 11,724 MPa and 34 MPa, which were 4 % and 9 %, respectively, greater than group NM4 made with 102-mm-long nails and 450-mm nailing spacing that are recommended in the Canadian Standard CSA O86. The NLT beams had average MOEapp of 11,534 MPa and MORapp of 32 MPa that were 2 % and 16 % higher than DLT ones, respectively. No significant difference existed between parallel and inclined nailing patterns. This work made some contributions to understanding of the structural performance of dowel-type fastener-laminated timber products for the structural applications. Keywords: Nail laminated timber, dowel laminated timber, fastener type, fastening pattern, fastening spacing, apparent modulus of elasticity, apparent modulus of rupture, withdrawal capacity.
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Free
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Experimental investigation of the moment-rotation behaviour of beam-column connections produced using compressed wood connectors

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3104
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Connections
Material
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Author
Mehra, Sameer
O'Ceallaigh, Conan
Sotayo, Adeayo
Guan, Zhongwei
Harte M. Annette
Organization
National University of Ireland
University of Liverpool
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Connections
Keywords
Compressed Wood
Moment-Rotation Behaviour
Dowel Type Connections
Research Status
Complete
Series
Construction and Building Materials
Summary
The use of timber in construction in medium–high rise construction has increased in recent years largely due to the significant innovation in engineered wood products and connection technology coupled with a desire to utilise more environmentally sustainable construction materials. While engineered wood products offer a low-carbon solution to the construction industry, the widespread use of adhesive and metallic fasteners often limits the recyclability of the structural components at the end of life of the structure and it may be beneficial to reduce this where possible. To establish the possibility of an all-wood connection solution, this preliminary study examines a series of beam-column connections designs to evaluate the relative performance of the different designs, which are connected with modified or compressed wood (CW) connectors. The connection designs are formed between glued-laminated beam and column members in the first instance and later examined when connecting dowel-laminated timber (DLT) members. The results show that significant moment capacity and rotational stiffness can be achieved for connections solely connected using CW fasteners. Furthermore, the all-wood solution utilising CW fasteners to connect DLT members has also demonstrated significant moment capacity and rotational stiffness capacity without the use of adhesive and metallic components.
Online Access
Free
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Fire Design of Mass Timber Members

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2929
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
McLain, Richard
Breneman, Scott
Organization
WoodWorks
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Mass Timber
Code Applications
Construction Types
Fire Resistance Rating
Concealed Spaces
Penetrations
Research Status
Complete
Summary
For many years, exposed heavy timber framing elements have been permitted in U.S. buildings due to their inherent fire-resistance properties. The predictability of wood’s char rate has been well-established for decades and has long been recognized in building codes and standards. Today, one of the exciting trends in building design is the growing use of mass timber—i.e., large solid wood panel products such as cross-laminated timber (CLT) and nail-laminated timber (NLT)—for floor, wall and roof construction. Like heavy timber, mass timber products have inherent fire resistance that allows them to be left exposed and still achieve a fire-resistance rating. Because of their strength and dimensional stability, these products also offer an alternative to steel, concrete, and masonry for many applications, but have a much lighter carbon footprint. It is this combination of exposed structure and strength that developers and designers across the country are leveraging to create innovative designs with a warm yet modern aesthetic, often for projects that go beyond traditional norms. This paper has been written to support architects and engineers exploring the use of mass timber for commercial and multi-family construction. It focuses on how to meet fire-resistance requirements in the International Building Code (IBC), including calculation and testing-based methods. Unless otherwise noted, references refer to the 2018 IBC.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Fire Performance of Mass Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2824
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Ranger, Lindsay
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Fire Resistance
CSA 086
National Design Specifications for Wood Construction (NDSR)
Fire Test
Fire Stopping
Connections
Insurance
Mass Timber
Research Status
Complete
Series
InfoNote
Summary
This InfoNote summarizes recent research and work in progress. A significant amount of fire research has been conducted on mass timber over the last 10 years in Canada. This has supported the successful design and construction of numerous low-, mid-and even high-rise wood buildings. This has also fostered the introduction of new provisions into the National Building Code of Canada which has made wood and mass timber construction more accessible. However, the fire performance of these systems remains a concern for many potential occupants or owners of these buildings, not to mention building officials and fire departments. Research at FPInnovations continues to support designers and builders in the use of mass timber assemblies by ensuring fire safe designs.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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The Global Mass Timber Panel (MTP) Industry in a Post-Pandemic New Normal

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2782
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Organization
TallWood Design Institute
Oregon State University
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Manufacturing
Production Capacity
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Project contact is Lech Muszynski, Oregon State University College of Forestry (United States)
Summary
This research is a continuation of a long-term effort of systematically monitoring developments in the global CLT industry launched by the PI in 2011 and since 2017 partially funded by an ARS/TDI grant. Overall, including research conducted before ARS funding, this effort has involved two surveys launched in 2016 and in 2019; 46 targeted site tours of CLT manufacturing lines located in the USA, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, China, France, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Estonia; and an extensive review of trade journals tracking the development of the CLT industry. While adhesive-bonded CLT remains the main focus of the research, beginning with 2017 the survey also included two related mass timber panel (MTP) products classified as glueless CLT (massive cross-laminated timber panels bonded with nails and hardwood dowels), MTP hardware manufacturers, construction sites and research laboratories concerned with MTP related research. To-date we have created and populated a unique database covering more than 116 manufacturing plants (including more than 60 CLT lines) across the globe. The database includes information on MTP manufacturers within and outside the MTP industry cluster, including: changes in production capacity and dominant technologies in global MTP production; key success factors and constraints determining the emergence and growth of production; differences in perception of opportunities, risks, challenges and constraints; related business models, strategies, contextual policies, and; the role of innovation systems.
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Hem-Fir Mass Timber Research Report

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2531
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Organization
Ference & Company
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Mass Timber
Research
Regulatory Factors
Technical Factors
Market Factors
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The purpose of the study is to evaluate and summarize any technical or other impediments to using hem-fir in mass timber products. The different mass timber products included in the study are cross-laminated timber (CLT), glue-laminated timber (glulam), dowel-laminated timber (DLT) and nail-laminated timber (NLT).
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Improving Impact Sound Insulation Performance of Mass Timber Floors with Dry Floating Floor Solution

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2817
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Other Materials
Application
Floors
Organization
University of Northern British Columbia
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Other Materials
Application
Floors
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Dry Floating
Floor Assemblies
Low Frequency
Mass Timber
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Project contact is Jianhui Zhou at the University of Northern British Columbia (Canada)
Summary
Sound insulation performance is critical to the broader market acceptance of mass timber buildings in both residential and non-residential building markets. The project aims to develop dry floating floor solutions for mass timber floors with improved sound insulation performance. The specific objectives are: 1. To design floating floor assemblies using wood-based panels such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), gypsum board, and structural concrete panels for mass timber floors with considerations for fire requirements; 2. To evaluate the impact sound insulation performance of developed floor assemblies with a focus in the low-frequency range.
Less detail

Insurance for Mass Timber Construction: Assessing Risk and Providing Answers

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2875
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
General Information
Market and Adoption
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
McLain, Richard
Brodahl, Susan
Organization
WoodWorks
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Book/Guide
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
General Information
Market and Adoption
Fire
Keywords
Insurance
Fire Risk
Water Damage Mitigation
Site Security
Construction Schedule
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This paper is intended for developers and owners seeking to purchase insurance for mass timber buildings, for design/construction teams looking to make their designs and installation processes more insurable, and for insurance industry professionals looking to alleviate their concerns about safety and performance. For developers, owners and design/construction teams, it provides an overview of the insurance industry, including its history, what affects premiums, how risks are analyzed, and how project teams can navigate coverage for mass timber buildings. Insurance in general can seem like a mystery—what determines premium fluctuations, impacts of a strong vs. weak economy, and the varying roles of brokers, agents and underwriters. This paper will explain all of those aspects, focusing on the unique considerations of mass timber projects and steps that can be taken to make these buildings more insurable. For insurance brokers, underwriters and others in the industry, this paper provides an introduction to mass timber, including its growing use, code recognition and common project typologies. It also covers available information on fire performance and post-fire remediation, moisture impacts on building longevity, and items to watch for when reviewing specific projects.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Joint Professional Practice Guidelines: Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction up to 12 Storeys

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2772
Edition
Version 1.0 March 30, 2021
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Organization
Architectural Institute of British Columbia (AIBC)
Engineers and Geoscientists British Columbia
Edition
Version 1.0 March 30, 2021
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Book/Guide
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Acoustics
Structural
Design
Building Enclosure
Architecture
Quality Assurance
Building Code
Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction
Engineering
Fire Protection
Research Status
Complete
Summary
These Joint Professional Practice Guidelines – Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction Up to 12 Storeys were jointly prepared by the Architectural Institute of British Columbia (AIBC) and Engineers and Geoscientists British Columbia. The AIBC and Engineers and Geoscientists BC regulate and govern the professions of architecture, engineering, and geoscience under the Architects Act and the Professional Governance Act. The AIBC and Engineers and Geoscientists BC each have a regulatory mandate to protect the public interest, which is met in part by setting and maintaining appropriate academic, experience, and professional practice standards. Engineering Professionals are required per Section 7.3.1 of the Bylaws - Professional Governance Act to have regard for applicable standards, policies, plans, and practices established by the government or by Engineers and Geoscientists BC, including professional practice guidelines. For Engineering Professionals, these professional practice guidelines clarify the expectations for professional practice, conduct, and competence when providing engineering services for EMTC buildings. For Architects, these guidelines provide important information and identify issues to be considered when providing architectural services for EMTC buildings. These guidelines deal with the performance of specific activities in a manner such that Architects and Engineering Professionals can meet their professional obligations under the Architects Act and the Professional Governance Act. These guidelines were developed in response to new classifications of building size and construction relative to occupancy introduced in the 2018 British Columbia Building Code (BCBC), under Division B, Article 3.2.2.48EMTC. Group C, up to 12 storeys, Sprinklered, and Article 3.2.2.57EMTC. Group D, up to 12 storeys, Sprinklered. These new classifications were introduced in Revision 2 of the 2018 BCBC on December 12, 2019 and in Amendment 12715 of the 2019 Vancouver Building By-law (VBBL) on July 1, 2020. Additionally, provisions related to Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction (EMTC) were introduced in Revision 1 of the 2018 British Columbia Fire Code (BCFC) on December 12, 2019. These guidelines were first published in 2021 to provide guidance on architectural and engineering considerations relating to these significant changes to the 2018 BCBC, the 2019 VBBL, and the 2018 BCFC. For Engineering Professionals, these guidelines are intended to clarify the expectations of professional practice, conduct, and competence when Engineering Professionals are engaged on an EMTC building. For Architects, these guidelines inform and support relevant competency standards of practice to be met when Architects are engaged on an EMTC building. As with all building and construction types, the EMTC-specific code provisions prescribe minimum requirements that must be met. The majority of EMTC of 7 to 12 storeys are considered High Buildings, and as such are subject to the BCBC, Subsection 3.2.6. Additional Requirements for High Buildings.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Lumber-Based Mass Timber Products in Construction

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2163
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
General Information
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Gong, Meng
Publisher
IntechOpen
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Book/Guide
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
General Information
Keywords
Manufacturing
Life-Cycle Assessment
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This chapter provides information related to commonly used wood construction methods (i.e., light-frame, post-and-beam, and mass timber) and mass timber products. It briefly discusses the manufacturing of four major lumber-based mass timber products (i.e., glue-laminated timber, nail-laminated timber, dowel-laminated timber, and cross-laminated timber), and their available dimensions and typical applications. The discussion also addresses primary lumber products, such as dimension lumber, machine stress-rated lumber, and finger-joined lumber, which are the building blocks from which mass timber products are manufactured. Advantages of using wood in construction are illustrated by examples largely from North American practices. The life cycle assessment concept is also introduced.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

41 records – page 2 of 5.