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Chapter 11: Environmental Performance of Cross-Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue830
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
General Application
Author
O'Connor, Jennifer
Podesto, Lisa
Barry, Alpha
Grann, Blane
Organization
FPInnovations
Binational Softwood Lumber Council
Year of Publication
2013
Country of Publication
Canada
United States
Format
Book Section
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
General Application
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Life-Cycle Assessment
Mid-Rise
Volatile Organic Compounds
Environmental Footprint
North America
Sustainable Forest Practices
Indoor Air Quality
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
CLT Handbook - US Edition
Summary
The environmental footprint of CLT is frequently discussed as potentially beneficial when compared to functionally equivalent non-wood alternatives, particularly concrete systems. In this Chapter, the role of CLT in sustainable design is addressed. The embodied environmental impacts of CLT in a mid-rise building are discussed, with preliminary results from a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) study. We also discuss other aspects of CLT's environmental profile, including impact on the forest resource and impact on indoor air quality from CLT emissions. The ability of the North American forest to sustainably support a CLT industry is an important consideration and is assessed from several angles, including a companion discussion regarding efficient use of material. Market projections and forest growth-removal are applied to reach a clear conclusion that CLT will not create a challenge to the sustainable forest practices currently in place in North America and safeguarded through legislation and/or third party certification programs. To assess potential impact on indoor air quality, CLT products with different thicknesses and glue lines were tested for their volative organic compounds (VOCs) including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions. CLT was found to be in compliance with European labeling programs as well as the most stringent CARB limits for formaldehyde emissions. Testing was done on Canadian species, as there was no U.S. supplier of CLT at the time of this writing; because VOC emissions are affected by species, this work should be repeated from products made from different species.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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A Comparative Cradle-To-Gate Life Cycle Assessment of Mid-Rise Office Building Construction Alternatives: Laminated Timber or Reinforced Concrete

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue52
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
General Application
Author
Robertson, Adam
Lam, Frank
Cole, Raymond
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2012
Country of Publication
Switzerland
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
General Application
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Concrete
Embodied Carbon
Life-Cycle Assessment
Mid-Rise
National Building Code of Canada
NBCC
North America
Office Buildings
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
ISSN
2075-5309
Summary
The objective of this project was to quantify and compare the environmental impacts associated with alternative designs for a typical North American mid-rise office building. Two scenarios were considered; a traditional cast-in-place, reinforced concrete frame and a laminated timber hybrid design, which utilized engineered wood products (cross-laminated timber (CLT) and glulam). The boundary of the quantitative analysis was cradle-to-construction site gate and encompassed the structural support system and the building enclosure. Floor plans, elevations, material quantities, and structural loads associated with a five-storey concrete-framed building design were obtained from issued-for-construction drawings. A functionally equivalent, laminated timber hybrid design was conceived, based on Canadian Building Code requirements. Design values for locally produced CLT panels were established from in-house material testing. Primary data collected from a pilot-scale manufacturing facility was used to develop the life cycle inventory for CLT, whereas secondary sources were referenced for other construction materials. The TRACI characterization methodology was employed to translate inventory flows into impact indicators. The results indicated that the laminated timber building design offered a lower environmental impact in 10 of 11 assessment categories. The cradle-to-gate process energy was found to be nearly identical in both design scenarios (3.5 GJ/m2), whereas the cumulative embodied energy (feedstock plus process) of construction materials was estimated to be 8.2 and 4.6 GJ/m2 for the timber and concrete designs, respectively; which indicated an increased availability of readily accessible potential energy stored within the building materials of the timber alternative.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Disproportionate Collapse Analysis of Mid-rise Cross-laminated Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2181
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
General Application
Wood Building Systems
Walls
Author
Tannert, Thomas
Mpidi Bita, Hercend
Currie, Neil
Year of Publication
2018
Country of Publication
United Kingdom
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
General Application
Wood Building Systems
Walls
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Progressive Collapse
Robustness
Structural Integrity
Redundancy
Reliability Analysis
Mid-Rise
Engineered Wood Product (EWP)
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering
Notes
DOI link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15732479.2018.1456553
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Review and Discussion of North American Building Codes and Fire Performance Design Criteria for Mass Timber with Focus on CLT

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1878
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
General Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Semple, Katherine
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2018
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
General Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Building Codes
Fire Safety
Mid-Rise
Fire Performance
Adhesives
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Notes
Report is currently not available due to the redevelopment of FPInnovations' publications website.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Solutions for Mid-Rise Wood Construction: Encapsulation Time Data from NRC Fire-Resistance Projects

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue34
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
General Application