Timber construction has become completely modernized. It has gained considerably in market share with respect to competing building materials and is dominated by systems such as frame and solid timber construction.
Every timber construction is determined by its structure. Hence it is essential to know the connections and relationships from the design stage right through to the construction phase. Systems in Timber Engineering takes a whole new approach to this subject. It is a comprehensive, analytical, and visually organized treatment, from the simple single-family house to the large-scale multistore structure. It includes the building envelope, which is so important for saving energy, and systems for ceilings and interior dividing walls, which are so essential from the vantage point of construction.
This work uses plans, schematic drawings, and pictures to show the current and forward-looking state of the technology as applied in Switzerland, a leading country in the field of timber construction.
Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses. Keywords: wood structure, physical properties (wood), mechanical properties (wood), lumber, wood-based composites, plywood, panel products, design, fastenings, wood moisture, drying, gluing, fire resistance, finishing, decay, preservation, wood-based products, heat sterilization, sustainable use.
Bridges built in timber are enjoying a significant revival, both for pedestrian and light traffic and increasingly for heavier loadings and longer spans. Timber's high strength-to-weight ratio, combined with the ease and speed of construction inherent in the off-site prefabrication methods used, make a timber bridge a suitable option in many different scenarios.
This handbook gives technical guidance on forms, materials, structural design and construction techniques suitable for both small and large timber bridges. Eurocode 5 Part Two (BS EN 1995-2) for the first time provides an international standard for the construction of timber bridges, removing a potential obstacle for engineers where timber construction for bridges has not – in recent centuries at least – been usual.
Clearly illustrated throughout, this guide explains how to make use of this oldest construction material in a modern context to create sustainable, aesthetically pleasing, practical and durable bridges. Worldwide examples include Tourand Creek Bridge, Canada; Toijala, Finland; Punt la Resgia, Switzerland; Pont de Crest, France; Almorere Pylon Bridge, the Netherlands.
It is not surprising to see a rapid growth in the demand for mid- to high-rise buildings. Traditionally, these types of buildings have been dominated by steel and concrete. This trend creates a great opportunity for wood to expand its traditional single and low-rise multi-family building market to the growing mid- to high-rise building market. The significance and importance of wood construction to environmental conservation and the Canadian economy has been recognized by governments, the building industry, architects, design engineers, builders and clients. It is expected that more and more tall wood frame buildings of 6- to 8-storeys (or taller) will be constructed in Canada. Before we can push for use of wood in such applications, however, several barriers to wood success in its traditional and potential market places have to be removed. Lack of knowledge of the dynamic properties of mid- to high-rise wood and hybrid wood buildings and their responses to wind, and absence of current guidelines for wind vibration design of mid- to high-rise wood and hybrid wood buildings are examples of such barriers.
Inspection, Testing, and Monitoring of Buildings and Bridges
Depending on the severity, fire damage can compromise the structural integrity of wood structures such as buildings or residences. Fire damage of wood structures can incorporate several models that address (1) the type, cause, and spread of the fire, (2) the thermal gradients and fire-resistance ratings, and (3) the residual load capacity.
The investigator should employ engineering judgment to identify those in-service members that are to be replaced, repaired, or can remain in-service as they are. Suchjudgment will likely be based on the visual inspection of damaged members, connections, and any protective membranes.
Structures and Architecture: Concepts, Applications and Challenges
Modern seismic design procedures are widely represented by the concept of Performance-Based Seismic Design (PBSD). Direct Displacement-Based Design (DDBD) procedure for PBSD of buildings is considered a very promising method which uses displacement as an input design parameter. The DDBD procedure first codified by Priestley requires an a priori estimate of the design displacement and the associated equivalent viscous damping of the structure, at design performance levels. In this paper, design parameters for the ultimate limit state have been developed for a common construction system for timber buildings. Such parameters are defined as a function of mechanical and geometrical connection configurations.
The Guide for Designing Energy-Efficient Building Enclosures for Wood-Frame Multi-Unit Residential Buildings in Marine to Cold Climate Zones in North America was developed by FPInnovations in collaboration with RDH Building Engineering Ltd., the Homeowner Protection Office, Branch of BC Housing, and the Canadian Wood Council.
The project is part of efforts within the Advanced Building Systems Program of FPInnovations to assemble and add to the knowledge base regarding Canadian wood products and building systems. The team of the Advanced Building Systems Program works with members and partners of FPInnovations to address critical technical issues that threaten existing markets for wood products or which limit expansion or access to such new markets. This guide was developed in response to the rapidly changing energy-efficiency requirements for buildings across Canada and the United States.
This guide serves two major objectives:
To assist architects, engineers, designers and builders in improving the thermal performance of building enclosures of wood multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs), in response to the increasingly stringent requirements for the energy efficiency of buildings in the marine to cold climate zones in North America (U.S. DOE/ASHRAE and NECB Climate Zones 5 through 7 and parts of Zone 4);
To advance MURB design practices, construction practices, and material use based on best knowledge, in order to ensure the durable performance of wood-frame building enclosures that are insulated to higher levels than traditional wood-frame construction.
The major requirements for thermal performance of building enclosures are summarized (up to February 2013), including those for the following codes and standards:
2011 National Energy Code of Canada for Buildings (2011 NECB);
2013 interim update of the 2010 National Building Code of Canada (2010 NBC, Section 9.36–Energy Efficiency);
2012 International Energy Conservation Code (2012 IECC);
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1– Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (2004, 2007, and 2010 versions).
In addition to meeting the requirements of the various building codes and standards, a building may need to incorporate construction practices that reflect local preferences in material use, design and construction.
Regional climate differences will also affect design solutions.
This guide primarily addresses above-grade walls, below-grade walls and roofs of platform wood-frame construction. It also includes information regarding thermal performance of cross-laminated timber (CLT) assemblies as well as the use of non-bearing wood-frame exterior walls (infill walls) in wood post-and-beam and concrete structures.
Examples of thermal resistance calculations, building assemblies, critical interface detailing, and appropriate material selection are provided to help guide designers and builders meet the requirements of the various energy-efficiency codes and standards, achieve above-code performance, and ensure long-term durability. This guide builds on the fundamentals of building science and on information contained within the Building Enclosure Design Guide: Wood-Frame Multi-Unit Residential Buildings, published by the Homeowner Protection Office, Branch of BC Housing.
This guide is based on the best current knowledge and future updates are anticipated. The guide is not intended to be a substitute for professional advice that considers specific building parameters.
Bringing together experts from research and practice, Shell Structures for Architecture: Form Finding and Optimization presents contemporary design methods for shell and gridshell structures, covering form-finding and structural optimization techniques. It introduces architecture and engineering practitioners and students to structural shells and provides computational techniques to develop complex curved structural surfaces, in the form of mathematics, computer algorythms, and design case studies.
This guide provides the directives needed for designers of tall wood buildings to produce their designs, plans and specifications. It has been developed to give them the information and general concepts required, based on the selected system. The elements and details required to comply with the guidelines in this document must be incorporated from a project’s initial design phase.
Part 1 – Guidelines contains several sections, including one that deals with basic conditions and describes the minimum general conditions applicable to any project for the construction of a wood building exceeding 6 storeys. The following sections contain special provisions that specify and complete the basic conditions.
Over the past 10-15 years a renaissance in wood architecture has occurred with the development of new wood building systems and design strategies, elevating wood from a predominantly single-family residential idiom to a rival of concrete and steel construction for a variety of building types, including high rises. This new solid wood architecture offers unparalleled environmental as well as construction and aesthetic benefits, and is of growing importance for professionals and academics involved in green design.
As synthetic materials and mutant and hybrid concoctions attain prominence in our daily lives—in our handheld devices, cooking utensils, vehicles, even things as simple as our shopping bags—the design and construction industries have instead re-embraced the familiar, the conventional—wood, which has regained prominence through innovations in engineering and construction methodologies. Technology is now commonly used—and often (though not always) affordably used—to cut, perforate, assemble, erect, and even fabricate materials in a manner not previously possible. Wood is one such material, and Timber in the City documents both the imaginings of those in the nascence of their education and practice and the executed work of design professionals at the leading edge of architecture. These designers, regardless of the duration of their immersion in the field, have imaginatively rethought the means by which we build and the methods by which we define space merely through differing deployments of a familiar building material.
Wood-frame construction is the dominant building construction in low-rise buildings. The growth in the urban population and the need to meet sustainability objectives will mean having to allow taller buildings in areas that were traditionally low-rise construction. While the need for higher and environmentally sustainable building solutions increases, the Canadian codes responsible for the health and safety of buildings continued to limit wood building solutions to four storeys. Mid-rise (5- and 6-storey) wood-frame construction is a natural extension of low-rise wood-frame construction. In 2009, the BC Building Code (BCBC) was amended by the BC Building and Safety Standards Branch (formerly Policy Branch) to allow mid-rise wood-frame construction. The amendment brought the BC Building Code more closely in line with the U.S. states of California, Washington, and Oregon, where mid-rise wood construction is permitted. More than 100 mid-rise wood-frame construction projects in BC followed the BCBC amendment. Later, the provinces of Québec, Ontario, and Alberta took steps to permit mid-rise wood-frame construction, and finally the Canadian Commission on Building and Fire Codes (CCBFC) accepted code change proposals to allow 5- and 6-storey wood-frame construction in the 2015 edition of the National Building Code Canada (NBCC). NRC, CWC, and FPInnovations worked collaboratively on a project, funded by Natural Resources Canada and several provinces to provide additional technical information to support mid-rise wood-frame construction. This Handbook consists of ten multi-disciplinary chapters, which have been prepared to facilitate the design and construction of mid-rise wood-frame construction in Canada. Building on the information that formed the basis of Association of Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of British Columbia (APEGBC) Bulletin and the Régie du bâtiment du Québec (RBQ) guide, this Handbook covers broad design and construction topics and provides practical solutions by making use of the most recently developed technical and research information. The Handbook has been prepared to assist architects, engineers, code consultants, developers, building owners, and Authorities Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). It is designed to be used in conjunction with the upcoming 2015 edition of the NBCC and the 2014 Edition of the CSA Standard on Engineering Design in Wood. It also complements existing design aids such as the CWC Wood Design Manual.
Overall moisture management during construction has become increasingly important due to the increase in building height and area, which potentially prolongs the exposure to inclement weather, and the overall increase in speed of construction, which may not allow adequate time for drying to occur. This report provides guidelines and relevant information about on-site moisture management practices that can be adapted to suit a range of wood construction projects. It aims to help designers and construction companies and builders assess the potential for moisture-related issues arising during the construction phase of a wood-building project and identify the appropriate actions to mitigate such risk.
This volume presents a history of heavy timber construction (HTC) in the United States, chronicling nearly two centuries of building history, from inception to a detailed evaluation of one of the best surviving examples of the type, with an emphasis on fire resistance. The book does not limit itself in scope to serving only as a common history. Rather, it provides critical analysis of HTC in terms of construction methods, design, technical specifications, and historical performance under fire conditions. As such, this book provides readers with a truly comprehensive understanding and exploration of heavy timber construction in the United States and its performance under fire conditions.
As with most engineering structures, joint design has a major impact on the economy of the building. It can account for between 5 and 50% of the cost of the un-jointed timber members and consume up to 70% of design effort.
The development of a rod-based connection, introduced in this Guide, overcomes many of the issues experienced with traditional connections. By moving away from the traditional timber connection to a connection in which most of the work is done off-site, the building can be erected much more quickly.
The quick-connect connection must be capable of transferring bending moments, shear forces and axial forces between the portal frame members. The design checks which must be conducted vary, depending on the type of joint. The following sections provide a detailed design approach for a variety of connection types.
This comprehensive book provides in-depth knowledge and understanding of design rules according to Eurocode 5. It is based on the first edition of the STEP (Structural Timber Education Programme) series, which was prepared in 1995 by about 50 authors from 14 European countries. The present work updates and extends the STEP compilation and is aimed at students, structural engineers and other timber structure professionals.
Timber bridges have a long history of construction and use throughout North America, including Ontario, for roadways, railways and logging roads. The Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CHBDC), together with the Canadian Wood Council publication Wood Highway Bridges from 1992 are typically referenced by designers of timber bridges in Ontario. This new reference is intended to provide updated background information for designers as they embark on proposing and designing timber highway bridges for primary and secondary roads.
This reference is divided into three parts:
Part 1 – Wood Bridges – Design and Use
Part 2 – Opportunities & Current Limitations
Part 3 – Design Examples
Part 1 provides background information on topics including wood materials, bridge systems, prefabrication, durability and species availability. Details of costs, construction cycle and sustainability are also provided. Part 1 concludes with examples of a variety of completed highway bridges from North America and Europe.
Part 2 of this reference is intended to provide designers and authorities with highlights of the current edition of the CHBDC on subjects related to the wood highway bridges, including areas that will require future development in the code. Additional references to other resources for advancing practitioner knowledge of and advancing the state of the art in wood bridge design are provided.
Part 3 has two fully worked design examples of a two-lane 18-m span wood highway bridge designed in accordance with the latest provisions of the CHBDC and the best available information from current literature. Each example is based on a single-span, simply-supported glued-laminated girder bridge. One bridge has a glued-laminated deck and the other has a stress-laminated deck. These examples are intended to help designers understand the key issues as they undertake wood highway bridge design. Durability through detailing and choice of materials is discussed.
This Design and Construction Guide (the Guide) provides the Canadian design and construction industry with immediate support and guidance to ensure safe, predictable, and economical use of NLT. It is intended to offer practical strategies, advice, and guidance, transferring knowledge and lessons learned from those with experience.
This Guide focuses on design and construction considerations for floor and roof systems pertaining to current Canadian construction practice and standards. While NLT is being used for vertical elements for walls, stair shafts, and elevator shafts, this Guide provides the greatest depth of direction for common horizontal applications. The information included here is supplemental to wood design and construction best practices and is specific to the application of NLT. Built examples are included to illustrate real application and visual reference as much as possible.
This book has been written to cover the design and performance of CLT within construction. Chapter 1 showcases its uses for architects and building designers. Chapter 2 focuses on design principles and Chapter 3 covers CLT performance, including structural design, fire performance, acoustics, thermal performance, durability, appearance, and sustainability. Chapter 4 concludes the book with thirteen case studies based on several building types. Highly illustrated with photos and technical drawings, this book demonstrates the versatility of CLT as a sustainable, engineered timber solution and will assist architects, engineers and their clients looking to work with this material.