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Experimental Investigation of Cross Laminated Timber Elements with Holes or Notches at In-Plane Beam Loading Conditions

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3152
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Jelec, Mario
Damjanovic, Domagoj
Varevac, Damir
Rajcic, Vlatka
Organization
Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek
University of Zagreb
Editor
Brandner, Reinhard
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
In-Plane
Hole
Notch
Crossing Area
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
Environmental and urbanisation challenges have encouraged steady growth of mass timber structures where cross laminated timber (CLT) stands out in applications as full-size wall, floor, or beam elements. Beam elements are used mainly in situations where cross layers have a reinforcing effect on the tensile stress perpendicular to the beam axis, such as when introducing holes or notches, which is common practice in beams, due to engineering, installation, or architectural requirements. This paper presents experimental investigations of CLT beams with holes or notches for comparison and validation of an analytical model provided in the literature. Different sizes of holes and notches as well as different placements of the holes were considered in the experiments. All relevant failure modes were analysed and discussed in detail. Two predominant failure modes were indicated, i.e., bending failure and shear failure in crossing areas (mode III). Results further indicate that reduced lamination widths near the hole, notch, or element edges have a relatively small influence on the beam strength. Parametric studies indicate net shear failure (mode II) and tensile failure perpendicular to the beam axis as the critical failure modes in most of the considered cases, indicating their strong underestimation in design verifications according to the analytical model.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Glulam Beams with Holes

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue211
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Author
Jelec, Mario
Varevac, Damir
Zovkic, Jurko
Organization
University of Osijek
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Finite Element Model
Openings
Numerical model
Stress Distribution
Research Status
Complete
Series
e-GFOS
Summary
This paper provides a systematic review of research on glued laminated timber beams with circular and rectangular openings. Experiments on girders with unreinforced openings varied several parameters, including the girder span and shape, opening position and shape, and the relationship between the stress state near the opening and the ratio of opening size to girder size. We compare experimental results with recommendations given by DIN 1052:2004-08, DIN EN 1995-1-1/NA: 2010, prEN 1995-1-1: Final Draft, analytical expressions, and other relevant standards, as well as with the results of numerical models using the finite element method. Because of its myriad complexities and uncertainties, this area remains open for further research and for implementation of that research into practical design guidelines and rules.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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