A structure may be totally destroyed due to a fire, but often it is only partially damaged and parts of it may still be salvaged and reused. For buildings with significant historic and cultural value, it is of utmost importance that these elements, which were only partially damaged, can still be recovered as to preserve the authenticity of the structure. In the case of timber elements after a fire, it is common to find damage on the cross-section exterior part, whereas the inner part presents still a non-damaged section. Therefore, the element is often found with an exterior irregular shape, either due to its original shape prior decay or due to the exposure to fire, that does not coincide with the inner residual cross-section. Moreover, it is essential to perform a preliminary safety analysis to verify which elements can be preserved and to what extent interventions could be needed. The objective of this work is to apply a methodology that allows to calculate the residual cross-section of partially burnt timber elements structures as to calculate the resistant and apparent sections for geometry assessment and to implement that information in three-dimensional structural models. For this purpose, this work proposes a methodology based on a combination of drilling resistance tests together with laser scanner measurements. The methodology was first tested and calibrated within a controlled laboratory environment and then validated onsite using elements from a building exposed to a past fire. The Casa de Sarmento (Sarmento's House) in Guimarães (Portugal) was used as case study, where various structural damages due to a past fire were found.
The nonlinear behaviour of connections between structural elements is critical to the performance of mass-timber structures under seismic loads. However, limited work has been developed in nonlinear modelling and fragility assessment of mass-timber structures. To improve the accuracy of this approach, in particular when considering structures with ring-doweled moment-resisting connections, a nonlinear modelling approach and fragility assessment are proposed and a prototype example of a three-story building is analysed herein as a case study. For the case study, connections and members were designed following the prescriptions in Eurocode 5 and Eurocode 8, considering a high ductility structure. The mechanical properties of the structure are modelled as random variables to evaluate the impact of uncertainty on the prediction of the structural performance, in particular, on the probability of occurrence of ductile and brittle failure modes. The structure is studied under both nonlinear static analysis and multi-record incremental dynamic analysis. From these, fragility curves for different damage levels are computed and a q-factor is proposed. Results indicate that the requirements of Eurocode 5 and Eurocode 8 are sufficient to guarantee adequate performance for this type of structure, albeit these may be overconservative. Moreover, it is shown that uncertainties in material properties have a significant impact on the collapse capacity of these structures.
Nowadays, there is a vast need to calculate performances of timber constructions. Usually, simulations are implemented to predict buildings elements final performances. Here, the thermal and acoustic parameters necessary to simulate the performances of timber buildings elements are investigated. These data are need as input information for simulations. Anyway, at present literature does not provide a unified view and it lacks an overall vision. Furthermore, in this paper the material properties used as starting points for simulation methods are collected, compared and catalogued in order to produce a complete dataset, useable for acoustic and thermal simulation in timber buildings.