Cross laminated timber (CLT) is a wood panelling building system that is used in construction, e.g. for floors, walls and beams. Because of the increased use of CLT, it is important to have accurate simulation models. CLT systems are simulated with one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) methods because they are fast and deliver practical results. However, because non-edge-glued panels cannot be modelled under 2D, these results may differ from more accurate calculations in three dimensions (3D). In this investigation, CLT panels with different width-to-thickness ratios for the boards have been simulated using the finite element method. The size of the CLT-panels was 3.0 m × 3.9 m and they had three and five laminate layers oriented 0°–90°–0° and 0°–90°–0°–90°–0°. The thicknesses of the boards were 33.33, 40.0, and 46.5 mm. The CLT panel deformation was compared by using a distributed out-of-plane load. Results showed that panels with narrow boards were less stiff than wide boards for the four-sided support setup. The results also showed that 2D models underestimate the displacement when compared to 3D models. By adjusting the stiffness factor k88, the 2D model displacement became more comparable to the 3D model.
Board width-to-thickness ratios in non-edge-glued cross laminated timber (CLT) panels influence the in-plane shear stiffness of the panel. The objective is to show the impact of board width-to-thickness ratios for 3- and 5-layer CLT panels. Shear stiffnesses were calculated using finite element analysis and are shown as reduction factors relative to the shear stiffnesses of edge-glued CLT panels. Board width-to-thickness ratios were independently varied for outer and inner layers. Results show that the reduction factor lies in the interval of 0.6 to 0.9 for most width-to-thickness ratios. Results show also that using boards with low width-to-thickness ratios give low reduction factors. The calculated result differed by 2.9% compared to existing experimental data.
The use of cross-laminated timber (CLT) in constructing tall buildings has increased. So, it has become crucial to get a higher in-plane stiffness in CLT panels. One way of increasing the shear modulus, G, for CLT panels can be by alternating the layers to other angles than the traditional 0° and 90°. The diagonal compression test can be used to measure the shear stiffness from which G is calculated. A general equation for calculating the G value for the CLT panels tested in the diagonal compression test was established and verified by tests, finite element simulations and external data. The equation was created from finite element simulations of full-scale CLT walls. By this equation, the influence on the G value was a factor of 2.8 and 2.0 by alternating the main laminate direction of the mid layer from the traditional 90° to 45° and 30°, respectively. From practical tests, these increases were measured to 2.9 and 1.8, respectively. Another influence on the G value was studied by the reduction of the glue area between the layers. It was shown that the pattern of the contact area was more important than the size of the contact area.
Determining the mechanical properties of cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels is an important issue. A property that is particularly important for CLT used as shear walls in buildings is the in-plane shear modulus. In this study, a method to determine the in-plane shear modulus of 3- and 5-layer CLT panels was developed based on picture frame tests and a correction factor evaluated from finite element simulations. The picture frame test is a biaxial test where a panel is simultaneously compressed and tensioned. Two different testing methods are simulated by finite elements: theoretical pure shear models as a reference cases and picture frame models to simulate the picture frame test setup. An equation for calculating the shear modulus from the measured shear stiffnesses in the picture frame tests is developed by comparisons between tests and finite element simulations of the CLT panels. The results show that pure shear conditions are achieved in the central region of the panels. No influence from the size of the tested panels is observed in the finite element simulations.