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6 records – page 1 of 1.

Elastic design of steel-timber composite beams

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3277
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
Steel-Timber Composite
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Author
Aspila, Aku
Heinisuo, Markku
Mela, Kristo
Malaska, Mikko
Pajunen, Sami
Organization
Tampere University
Publisher
Taylor&Francis Online
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
Steel-Timber Composite
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Composite Beam
Layered Beam Theory
STC
Research Status
Complete
Series
Wood Material Science & Engineering
Summary
In this paper, the well-known elastic theory of layered beams (ETLB) is employed for the structural analysis of steel-timber composite (STC) floors, where the cross-laminated timber (CLT) slabs are located on top of a steel beam and assuming the linear elastic behaviour of the STC structure. In the analysis, the CLT slab is homogenized, i.e. the lamellas are replaced by a uniform fictitious material such that the resulting slab has equivalent selected structural properties to the original. Two homogenization methods are presented and compared for selected cases. The first method (EI-equivalent) is based on the bending stiffness of the CLT cross-section, where the shear factor is obtained by the Gamma method. The second method (EA-equivalent) enforces equal axial stiffness for the homogenized slab. The two methods are compared against full-scale test results available in the literature, including static four-point bending tests, and dynamic test cases. The goal is to explore the usability of the ETLB for STC structures and examines which of the two homogenization methods provides more accurate results. Based on the evaluation of the experiments, it can be concluded that the ETLB yields an accurate analytical approach for STC structures, and both methods provide accurate results.
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Finnish Multi-Story Timber-Framed Apartment Buildings: Tampere Residents’ Perspectives

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3285
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Savolainen, Jussi Matias
Ilgin, Hüseyin Emre
Oinas, Eveliina
Karjalainen, Markku
Organization
Tampere University of Applied Sciences
Tampere University
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Residents
Finland
Tampere
Questionnaire
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
This study aims to understand the views and experiences of Tampere residents in Finland about multi-story timber-framed apartments and wooden structures through a questionnaire. The 151 responses highlighted two main issues: (1) multi-story timber-framed apartments were rated as a good product in terms of user satisfaction, which was based on the following findings: (1a) for most of the respondents, the apartment had fresh air and a suitable temperature on cold winter days; (1b) the majority felt safe living in a multi-story timber-framed apartment; (1c) respondents generally were satisfied with the soundproofing, except for the disturbing noises from the upper floor and the stairwells; (1d) residents’ opinions were mainly positive regarding most of the functional features such as storage facilities, the location and access roads of the building, exterior facade, and wood visibility level; (2) there exists a demand for multi-story timber-framed residential buildings in the market, especially in the customer segment, which is defined as ‘environmentalist’. This was based on the following findings: (2a) living in an environmentally friendly, low-carbon, natural-material apartment, cozier living in a timber-framed apartment, and meaningful use of wood in interiors were notably more important for the extremely satisfied residents; (2b) building facades, and floors and ceilings inside the apartment were the places where the use of wood was most desired in the apartment. This article is intended to be a guide for key construction experts, e.g., architectural designers and developers to better understand and meet the demands and needs of timber-framed apartment residents in Finland.
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Main Design Considerations and Prospects of Contemporary Tall Timber Apartment Buildings: Views of Key Professionals from Finland

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3045
Year of Publication
2021
Author
Karjalainen, Markku
Ilgin, Hüseyin Emre
Tulonen, Lassi
Organization
Tampere University
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Keywords
Tall Timber Apartment Building
Design Considerations
Prospects
Key Professionals' View
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
As a result of increasing urbanization, the need for sustainable housing, e.g., tall (over eight-story) timber apartments, is increasing in Finland. Leveraging the experience of key Finnish professionals plays a significant role in the transition and expansion of sustainable timber housing as an essential part of the forest-based bioeconomy. This interview-based study will serve to fill a gap by examining the views of key professionals with experience in tall timber residential construction, using Finland as a case study. The 21 interviews primarily highlighted that: (1) the construction cost was the most important parameter affecting the architectural and structural design; (2) the most critical consideration influencing the overall design was reported to be the structural system selection and structural design, followed by city planning and client control; (3) key professionals assessed the building’s form and the main dimensions of the building’s mass as the most significant parameters affected by timber construction; (4) the main structural considerations that needed to be developed for tall timber housing were the bracing solutions and fittings, the structures of the intermediate floors, and load-bearing vertical/partition structures; (5) construction preconceptions, the lack of cost-competitiveness, and the lack of construction expertise/actors were considered to be major obstacles; (6) the most important parameters for the future of tall timber apartment buildings were reported to be education, timber construction marketing and public awareness, land delivery conditions, the unification of public administration, and financial support; (7) tall timber building design was reported to be a complex subject that requires close collaboration, especially between the architect, the structural designer and the wood supplier. This paper will help us to understand the boundary conditions affecting the design, the development needs in solutions, the importance of design parameters, the design parameters affected by timber construction, and the prospects, measures and obstacles to tall timber apartments from the perspectives of key Finnish professionals, thereby aiding the sound planning and development of tall timber housing projects.
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Optimization framework for cost and carbon emission of timber floor elements

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3001
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Cost
Environmental Impact
Application
Floors
Author
Nesheim, Sveinung
Mela, Kristo
Malo, Kjell
Labonnote, Nathalie
Organization
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Tampere University
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Floors
Topic
Cost
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Cost Optimization
Carbon Emission Reduction
Timber Floor
Eurocode 5
Research Status
Complete
Series
Engineering Structures
Summary
Long-span timber floor elements increase the adaptability of a building and they exhibit a significant market potential. High cost of the floor elements is a challenge, and the timber sector is under substantial pressure to find more economical solutions without weakening otherwise favourable environmental performance. The range of technical timber-based materials and components, structural typologies, overlays and ceiling systems represent an immense solution space when searching for a competitive design for a specific building application. Finding the optimum solution requires a computational procedure. In this study a recent development for the accounting of manufacturing resources for timber elements is utilized to build an optimization framework for cost and ECO2 minimisation of timber floor elements finalized at the factory gate. The design of the element is formulated as a discrete optimization problem which is solved by a mixed-integer sequential linearization procedure. Various material combinations and constraint combinations are treated. The optimization framework provides a tool for rapid design exploration that can be used in timber floor design situations. The results of the calculations carried out in this study provide insight on the general trends of optimum floor elements. The optimization model is used to analyse the characteristics of the optimum designs, and a comparison between the current and the proposed method for the second generation of Eurocode 5 is chosen as a vehicle for demonstrating achievable implications.
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Preliminary Design Proposals for Dovetail Wood Board Elements in Multi-Story Building Construction

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2969
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Market and Adoption
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Ilgin, Hüseyin Emre
Karjalainen, Markku
Organization
Tampere University
Editor
Zona, Alessandro
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Dovetail Wood Board Elements
Multi-storey Buildings
Sustainability
Research Status
Complete
Series
Architecture
Summary
Adhesives and metal fasteners play important roles in the composition and connections of engineered wood products (EWPs) such as cross-laminated timber and glue-laminated timber in the building construction industry. However, due to their petroleum-based nature, adhesives can cause toxic gas emissions, while metal fasteners compromise the end-of-life disposal and reusability of EWPs. These issues adversely affect the sustainable material properties of EWPs. Numerous studies have been conducted in the literature on the technological, ecological, social, and economic aspects of EWPs in construction with different construction solutions, but no studies have been conducted to evaluate the technical performance of dovetail wood board elements (DWBE) in multi-story or tall building construction. This study focuses on adhesive- and metal fastener-free DWBE as sustainable material alternatives for ecologically sensitive engineering solutions. Various preliminary design proposals are presented for DWBE using architectural modeling programs as an environmentally friendly approach intended for use in the timber construction industry. The research findings are based on a theoretical approach that has not yet been practically tested but is proposed considering existing construction practices that need further investigation, including technical performance tests. It is believed that this paper will contribute to the promotion and diffusion of DWBE for more diverse and innovative architectural and structural applications, particularly in multi-story timber building construction, as one of the key tools in tackling climate change challenges.
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Simulation of impact force generated by an ISO tapping machine on a wooden slab using explicit dynamics analysis

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3256
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Lietzén, Jesse
Sormunen, Juho
Pajunen, Sami
Kylliäinen, Mikko
Organization
Tampere University
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Impact Sound Insulation
Impact Force
FEM
Explicit Time Integration
LS-DYNA
Tapping Machine
Wooden Floor
Research Status
Complete
Series
Engineering Structures
Summary
Application of simulation tools to compute impact sound insulation properties of wooden floors has raised interests in recent decades. To achieve accurate results from the prediction models, information from force excitation generated by impact sound sources is required. The purpose of our study was to present a validated procedure to determine the non-linear impact force excitation generated by an ISO tapping machine. The method comprised use of finite element method (FEM) and explicit time integration to compute impact force pulse generated by a hammer of the tapping machine. With a post-processing procedure, the force pulses can be converted to present point forces describing the continuous operation of the tapping machine on the floor. To demonstrate the applicability of the method, the finite element model was applied to imitate an experimental situation on a cross-laminated timber (CLT) slab. The model validation showed that the computational model closely predicts the force pulse generated on the CLT slab. Findings from a sensitivity analysis revealed that local properties of the slab were the most important to the simulated impact force pulse. The findings of the analysis are helpful for those developing simulation tools to compute the impact force generated by the tapping machine on wooden floors.
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6 records – page 1 of 1.