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30 records – page 1 of 3.

Nail Laminated Timber Compartment Fire Tests

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2165
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Fire
Design and Systems
Material
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Wood Building Systems
Author
Su, Joseph
Leroux, Patrice
Lafrance, Pier-Simon
Berzins, Rob
Gratton, Karl
Gibbs, Eric
Weinfurter, Mark
Publisher
National Research Council Canada
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Report
Material
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Design and Systems
Keywords
Fire Tests
Compartment Fire Test
Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction
EMTC
Exposed Mass Timber Elements
Research Status
Complete
Summary
In early 2019, with funding support from Natural Resources Canada, the National Research Council Canada conducted a series of room scale fire tests of Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction (EMTC) with nail laminated timber (NLT) and Glulam structural elements. The goal of this test series is to quantify the contribution of NLT mass timber elements to compartment fires and to provide additional data as the technical basis for the amount of exposed mass timber elements to be allowed in EMTC buildings without significantly increasing the fire severity and duration.
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Experimental Study of Fire-induced-delamination of Cross Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2399
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Brandon, Daniel
Östman, Birgit
Su, Joseph
Kimball, Amanda
Hoehler, Matthew
Organization
Research Institutes of Sweden
Linnaeus University
National Research Council Canada
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Full-Scale Fire Test
Adhesive
Self-Extinction
Compartment Fire Test
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) is increasingly used as a structural material for tall buildings, due to its structural properties and low carbon footprint. CLT is a mass timber product, which is made by crosswise gluing layers of timber lamellae. Recent architectural trends include having visible CLT surfaces, which, in the event of a fire, can become involved in the fire and act as fuel to the fire. A study by the Fire Protection Research Foundation (FPRF; USA), National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA; USA), National Research Council Canada (NRC-CNRC; Canada), Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE; Sweden) and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST; USA) has focused on the contribution of exposed CLT to compartment fires. The study included a review of previous compartment fire tests, full-scale fire tests of compartments with and without exposed CLT structures, the development of design methods for engineers and intermediate scale fire tests to identify high-temperature resistant adhesives for CLT. The full-scale compartment tests showed the undesirable consequences of CLT delamination during a fire (i.e. fall-off of exposed lamellas), which occurred due to weakening of the CLT adhesive. These consequences included fire regrowth after a period of decay or a continuation of a fully developed fire. This can make self-extinction of a compartment fire not possible, implicating that the fire will lead to collapse if the fire is not manually extinguished or extinguished by sprinklers. In order to achieve self-extinction of flaming combustion in compartments with exposed CLT it is important to avoid fire-induced delamination. It was shown that fire-induced-delamination can be avoided using high-temperature-resistant adhesives. A test method was developed to identify adhesives that are not prone to fire-induced-delamination under relevant fire conditions. A summary of the test methodology, evaluation and results is discussed in this article.
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Free
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Fire Safety of Buildings in Canada

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1866
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Su, Joseph
Organization
National Research Council of Canada
Publisher
Society of Wood Science and Technology
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Fire Safety
Fire Protection
Fire Resistance
Performance Based Design
Building Codes
Research Status
Complete
Series
Wood and Fiber Science
Summary
This article provides an overview of the code requirements pertinent to large cross-laminated timber (CLT) buildings and the methods for meeting the requirements in Canada. Canadian building codes are objective-based. Compliance with the code is achieved by directly applying the acceptable solutions up to certain prescriptive building sizes (height and area) or by developing alternative solutions beyond the height and area limits. The fire safety design for a CLT building larger than the prescriptive limit must demonstrate that the building will achieve at least the minimum level of performance afforded by noncombustible construction in limiting the structural involvement in fire and contribution to the growth and spread of fire during the time required for occupant evacuation and emergency responses.
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Free
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Fire Testing of Rooms with Exposed Wood Surfaces in Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1867
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Su, Joseph
Leroux, Patrice
Lafrance, Pier-Simon
Berzins, Robert
Gibbs, Eric
Weinfurter, Mark
Organization
National Research Council of Canada
Publisher
National Research Council Canada. Construction
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Encapsulated
Mass Timber
Fire Tests
Fire Performance
Char Layer
Fire Regrowth
Research Status
Complete
Series
Client Report (National Research Council Canada. Construction)
Summary
In early 2018, with funding support from Natural Resources Canada and the Province of Ontario, the National Research Council of Canada conducted a series of room scale fire tests of Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction (EMTC). The goal of this test series is to further quantify the contribution of mass timber elements to fires and provide additional data for forming the technical basis for exposed mass timber elements in EMTC buildings without significantly increasing fire risks to life and property. The goal includes studying the fire performance of the 2nd generation cross-laminated timber (CLT) in resisting char layer fall-off, which could cause fire regrowth in the cooling phase of fully developed fires. The issues of char layer fall-off for the 1st generation CLT panels resulting in fire regrowth during the cooling phase of the fire were clearly revealed in the previous large scale CLT compartment fire tests under the auspices of the Fire Protection Research Foundation.
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Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings – Phase 2: Task 2 & 3 – Cross Laminated Timber Compartment Fire Tests

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1214
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Su, Joseph
Lafrance, Pier-Simon
Hoehler, Matthew
Bundy, Matthew
Organization
National Research Council of Canada
Publisher
Fire Protection Research Foundation
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Compartment Fire Test
Tall Wood
North America
Type X Gypsum Board
Ventilation
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Recent architectural trends include the design and construction of increasingly tall buildings with structural components comprised of engineered wood referred to by names including; cross laminated timber (CLT), laminated veneer lumber (LVL), or glued laminated timber (Glulam). These buildings are cited for their advantages in sustainability resulting from the use of wood as a renewable construction material. Previous research has shown that timber elements contribute to the fuel load in buildings and can increase the initial fire growth rate – potentially overwhelming fire protection system and creating more severe conditions for occupants, emergency responders, and nearby properties. The overarching goal of this project Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings Phase 2 (involving five tasks) is to quantify the contribution of CLT building elements (wall and/or floor-ceiling assemblies) in compartment fires and provide data to allow comparison of the performance of CLT systems against other building systems commonly used in tall buildings.
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Free
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Fire Safety of CLT Building in Canada

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3329
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Su, Joseph Z.
Organization
National Research Council Canada
Publisher
PKP Publishing Services Network
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Building Fire Safety
Fire Resistance
Performance Based Design
Alternative Solution
Research Status
Complete
Series
Wood and Fiber Science
Summary
This article provides an overview of the code requirements pertinent to large cross-laminated timber (CLT) buildings and the methods for meeting the requirements in Canada. Canadian building codes are objective-based. Compliance with the code is achieved by directly applying the acceptable solutions up to certain prescriptive building sizes (height and area) or by developing alternative solutions beyond the height and area limits. The fire safety design for a CLT building larger than the prescriptive limit must demonstrate that the building will achieve at least the minimum level of performance afforded by noncombustible construction in limiting the structural involvement in fire and contribution to the growth and spread of fire during the time required for occupant evacuation and emergency responses.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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A Literature Review of the State-of-Art in Fire Protection of Mid-Rise Wood Buildings Under Construction

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1949
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Fire
Site Construction Management
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Bwalya, Alex
Ko, Yoon
Lam, Cecilia
Kim, Andrew
Lougheed, Gary
Su, Joseph
Organization
National Research Council of Canada
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Report
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Site Construction Management
Keywords
Mid-Rise
Construction
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This work was carried in support of NRC’s Mid-rise Wood Buildings (MRWB) program, whose objective is to improve the performance of mid-rise and tall wood buildings. The main objective of the work was to determine the scope for future research to develop new technologies to prevent, fight and mitigate the impacts of fire during construction. The work involved an extensive literature review and some discussions with potential stakeholders to understand their views, concerns and research needs. The literature review covered approximately 115 publications (including magazine and newspaper articles). The current literature clearly identifies the significant fire risks faced by wood buildings during the construction phase and there are numerous examples of fires that have occurred at wood building construction sites. The literature review revealed that the current state-of-the-art essentially encompasses the development and promotion of safe working practices and fire safety guidelines for mid-rise wood buildings under construction, which is being adequately addressed by many industry stakeholders. There is a lack of research and methods to address the critical areas of active and passive fire protection during construction. This is likely due to the fact that the acceptance of mid-rise and tall wood buildings has only happened recently and was largely based on the fact that the fire safety of finished buildings is assured by proven adequacy of their fire resistance design features, such as the encapsulation approach, and mandatory requirements for fire protection systems, such as sprinklers. Therefore, NRC can make a more valuable contribution in areas where its existing fire research expertise and unique test facilities can lead to the development of new knowledge to improve safety in mid-rise wood buildings under construction by undertaking research in the following areas identified by this study: 1. Characterization of construction site fires and evaluation of detection systems; 2. Evaluation and development of active fire protection systems/technologies applicable to construction sites; 3. Evaluation and development of passive fire protection systems/technologies applicable to construction sites; 4. Improvement of firefighting tactics using scientific knowledge of construction site fires and effective suppression technologies. The research can be undertaken in phases, with Phase 1 focusing on the characterization of mid-rise wood construction site fires, evaluation and development of fire detection and suppression systems. Subsequent phases of the project could address the evaluation and development of cost-effective passive protection systems and the improvement of firefighting tactics using the fire scenarios developed in Phase 1. Further details of the potential scope for research in the above areas are presented and discussed in this report.
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Free
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Full-Scale Fire Test of a Mass Timber Vertical Shaft in Support to Tall Wood Buildings Canadian Initiative

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1673
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Shafts and Chases
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Su, Joseph
Dagenais, Christian
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Shafts and Chases
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Full Scale
Fire Test
Canada
Tall Wood
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3881-3887
Summary
A full-scale demonstration fire was conducted at National Research Council Canada (NRCC) to show that a 2-hr non-standard severe design fire in an apartment would have little or no effect on an adjacent elevator or stair shaft. The test was performed to support the approval of an alternative solution for a deemed-to-satisfy 2-hr noncombustible construction assembly, intended for the construction of a tall wood building in Quebec City (Canada). Throughout the duration of the fire no impact was observed in the CLT shaft: there was no evidence of temperature rise and no apparent smoke leakage. This suggests there was little to no effect of the design fire on the structure of the CLT shaft itself.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Full Scale Exterior Wall Test on Nordic Cross-Laminated Timber System

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Design and Systems
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Author
Gibbs, Eric
Su, Joseph
Organization
National Research Council of Canada
Year of Publication
2015
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Topic
Design and Systems
Fire
Keywords
Full Scale
Type X Gypsum Board
Exterior Wall
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This report describes a full-scale exterior wall fire test conducted on December 16, 2014 on a Nordic cross-laminated timber (CLT) wall system. The test was conducted in accordance with CAN/ULC-S134-13, Standard Method of Fire Test of Exterior Wall Assemblies. The test was conducted using the exterior wall fire test facility located in the Burn Hall of the NRC Fire Laboratory, Mississippi Mills, Ontario. The CLT wall system was assembled to represent a continuous solid wood wall covered by a water barrier membrane and insulation. The pilot burners were lit prior to the commencement of the test. Gas flow to the burners was manually adjusted to follow the prescribed heat input required by the standard.
Online Access
Free
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Full-Scale Mass Timber Shaft Demonstration Fire

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shafts and Chases
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Su, Joseph
Ranger, Lindsay
Muradori, Sasa
Organization
FPInnovations
National Research Council of Canada
Year of Publication
2015
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shafts and Chases
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Type X Gypsum Board
Origine
Fire Demonstration
Research Status
Complete
Summary
A full-scale demonstration dire was conducted at National Research Council Canada to show how a mass timber vertical shaft could withstand a severe fire exposure lasting at least two hours. The fire resistance tests and the demonstration fire were performed to support the approval and construction of a tall wood building in Quebec city; the building is planned to be 13 storeys which includes a 12-storey wood structure above a 1-storey concrete podium. An updated calculation methologody to determine the fire resistance of CLT is provided in Capter 8 (Fire) of the CLT Handbook.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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30 records – page 1 of 3.