Glued-in rods (GiR) are an effective way to connect timber elements from both load bearing capacity/stiffness and aesthetic point of view. This method is also widely accepted as a method for reinforcement of the new and existing timber structures. Although GiR are widely used in timber structures, there is still no unified European test standards, product standards or design equations for such connections. At present, there are several test methods and procedures applied in research and development. In this paper two different methods for obtaining pull-out strength are presented. Furthermore, experimental investigation was conducted and results obtained from both methods are mutually compared. Pull – compression test procedure is the most common setup for experimental investigation, however this setup is sometimes not representative and it is often characterized as unreliable because it does not quite good correspond to practical applications. The second examined test procedure was pull-pull. Within the experimental investigation, total number of 36 specimens were tested and results obtained from both methods are shown, discussed and compared in this paper.
Use of timber as a construction material has entered a period of renaissance since the development of high-performance engineered wood products, enabling larger and taller buildings to be built. In addition, due to substantial contribution of the building sector to global energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and waste production, sustainable solutions are needed, for which timber has shown a great potential as a sustainable, resilient and renewable building alternative, not only for single family homes but also for mid-rise and high-rise buildings. Both recent technological developments in timber engineering and exponentially increased use of engineered wood products and wood composites reflect in deficiency of current timber codes and standards. This paper presents an overview of some of the current challenges and emerging trends in the field of seismic design of timber buildings. Currently existing building codes and the development of new generation of European building codes are presented. Ongoing studies on a variety topics within seismic timber engineering are presented, including tall timber and hybrid buildings, composites with timber and seismic retrofitting with timber. Crucial challenges, key research needs and opportunities are addressed and critically discussed.