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Effects of knot area ratio on the bending properties of cross-laminated timber made from Korean pine

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3026
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Pang, Sung-Jun
Shim, Kug-Bo
Kim,Keon-Ho
Organization
Seoul National University
Publisher
Springer
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Korean Pine
Knot Cluster
Knot Area Ratio
Bending Test
Research Status
Complete
Series
Wood Science and Technology
Summary
The effect of knot clusters on the bending properties of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) cross-laminated timber (CLT) was analyzed to increase the utilization of low-quality lumber. The laminae used to manufacture the CLT were classified into five groups, four major layer groups, and one minor layer group, by mechanical grade and knot area ratio (KAR) of the lamina. Out-of-plane bending tests were conducted on CLT made from each layer group. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) of the manufactured CLT was closely correlated with the MOE of each individual major axis lamina. In the case of the modulus of rupture (MOR) of the CLT, the KAR of the laminae used in the major axis layer was more significantly affected than the MOE. The main finding is that the lower fifth percentile MOR value of the CLT specimens with large knots (KAR > 0.5) was higher than the acceptable reference value of E3 grade CLT (ANSI/APA PRG 320) made from a similar lamina grade. Therefore, the use of low-quality lumber to manufacture CLT can be expanded under the condition of limitation of the greater KAR.
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Improvement of Prediction Accuracy of Glulam Modulus of Elasticity by Considering Neutral Axis Shift in Bending

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1467
Year of Publication
2009
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Shim, Kug-Bo
Kim, Kwang-Mo
Park, Joo-Saeng
Publisher
Society of Wood Science and Technology
Year of Publication
2009
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Modulus of Elasticity
Transformed Section Method
Research Status
Complete
Series
Wood and Fiber Science
Summary
There is a discrepancy between the estimated modulus of elasticity (MOE) of glulam based on the dynamic MOE of laminates and measured MOE. The discrepancy is greater for glulam manufactured with mixed species. This study was undertaken to reduce the discrepancy between those MOE values. The error rate of predicting MOE of glulam by the transformed section method, without considering tension and compression modulus differences, was about 30%. To estimate the MOE of glulam more accurately, the differences between compression and tension modulus should be taken into account in the transformed section method. The measured tensile and compressive strain at the center of glulam under a bending load showed the movement of neutral axis toward the tension side of glulam. Therefore, the compression and tension modulus differences for each species should be identified before estimating the MOE of glulam. The prediction of glulam MOE was improved significantly by reflecting the ratio of compression and tension modulus vs dynamic MOE of laminates. The outermost of laminates in the compression side under bending load experienced plastic behavior and failure. This caused the neutral axis to move to the tension side and increased tension stress to cause the glulam to fail abruptly in tension. To improve the bending performance of glulam, reinforcing compression laminates need to be considered.
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Tensile Performance of Machine-Cut Dovetail Joint with Larch Glulam

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1509
Year of Publication
2010
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Park, Joo-Saeng
Hwang, Kweon-Hwan
Park, Moon-Jae
Shim, Kug-Bo
Publisher
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
Year of Publication
2010
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Larch
Dovetail Joints
Tensile Strength
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
Summary
Members used for the Korean traditional joints have been processed by handicraft, especially with domestic red pine species. Dovetail joint is most commonly used in woodworking joinery and traditional horizontal and vertical connections. It is able to be processed much easier to cut by handicraft and machines. However, although it is processed straight forwards, it requires a high degree of accuracy to ensure a snug fit. Also, tenons and mortises must fit together with no gap between them so that the joint interlocks tightly. A few scientific studies on the dovetail joints have been conducted so far. For the effective applications of traditional joints and domestic plantation wood species, dovetail joints were assembled by larch glulam members processed by machine pre-cut. To identify the tensile properties of through dovetail joints, larch glulam with 150 150mm in cross section were prepared. Furthermore, various geometric parameters of dovetai joints such as width, length, and tenon angle, were surveyed. The ends in the mortise was cracked mainly at a low strength level in the control specimens without reinforcements. The maximum tensile strengths of reinforced specimens considering real connections such as capital joint and headpiece on a column, increasedby handicraft, especially with domestic red pine species. Dovetail joint is most commonly used in woodworking joinery and traditional horizontal and vertical connections. It is able to be processed much easier to cut by handicraft and machines. However, although it is processed straight forwards, it requires a high degree of accuracy to ensure a snug fit. Also, tenons and mortises must fit together with no gap between them so that the joint interlocks tightly. A few scientific studies on the dovetail joints have been conducted so far. For the effective applications of traditional joints and domestic plantation wood species, dovetail joints were assembled by larch glulam members processed by machine pre-cut. To identify the tensile properties of through dovetail joints, larch glulam with 150 150mm in cross section were prepared. Furthermore, various geometric parameters of dovetai joints such as width, length, and tenon angle, were surveyed. The ends in the mortise was cracked mainly at a low strength level in the control specimens without reinforcements. The maximum tensile strengths of reinforced specimens considering real connections such as capital joint and headpiece on a column, increased by two times with shear failures on the tenon than the control specimens. The maximum tensile strength was obtained in the specimen of 25 degrees, and no difference was observed in the changes of neck widths.
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