Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) at in-plane beam loading conditions present a very complex stress state and many failure modes need to be considered in design. The work presented here aims at finding improvements of a specific analytical model for stress analysis and strength verification that has been suggested in literature and which is also suggested as a basis for design equations for the next version of Eurocode 5. Although the model has appealing properties it suffers from some drawbacks related to the assumed distributions of internal forces which, based on comparison to finite element analysis, appear to be inaccurate. The main focus in this paper is on model predictions regarding the distribution and magnitude of internal forces acting in the crossing areas between longitudinal and transversal laminations. The proposed modified model assumptions regarding the distribution of lamination shear forces, which in turn influence the forces acting in the crossing areas, are suggested to be taken into account in design of CLT beams.
In this study, static coefficients of friction for laminated veneer lumber on steel surfaces were determined experimentally. The focus was on the frictional behaviors at different pressure levels, which were studied in combination with other influencing parameters: fiber orientation, moisture content, and surface roughness. Coefficients of friction were obtained as 0.10–0.30 for a smooth steel surface and as high as 0.80 for a rough steel surface. Pressure influenced the measured coefficients of friction, and lower normal pressures yielded higher coefficients. The influence of fiber angle was observed to be moderate, although clearly detectable, thereby resulting in a higher coefficient of friction when sliding perpendicular rather than parallel to the grain. Moist specimens contained higher coefficients of friction than oven-dry specimens. The results provide realistic values for practical applications, particularly for use as input parameters of numerical simulations where the role of friction is often wrongfully considered.
The aim of the experimental study presented herein is the assessment and quantification of the behavior of individual dowels in multi-dowel connections loaded by a bending moment. For this purpose, doubleshear, steel-to-timber connections with nine steel dowels arranged in different patterns and with different dowel diameters were tested in 4-point bending. In order to achieve a ductile behavior with up to 7° relative rotation, the connections were partly reinforced with self-tapping screws. The reinforcement did not influence the global load-deformation behavior, neither for dowel diameters of 12 mm nor for 20 mm, as long as cracking was not decisive. The deformation of the individual dowels was studied by means of a non-contact deformation measurement system. Thus, the crushing deformation, i.e. the deformation at the steel plate, and the bending deformation of the dowels could be quantified. In case of 12 mm dowels, the bending deformation was larger than the crushing deformation, while it was smaller in case of 20 mm dowels. Moreover, dowels loaded parallel to the grain showed larger bending deformations than dowels loaded perpendicular to the grain. This indicates that the loading of the individual dowels in the connection differs, depending on their location.
The paper presents results from the experimental testing of load-bearing timber–glass composite shear walls and beams. Shear wall specimens measuring 1200 × 2400 mm2 manufactured with three adhesives of varying stiffness were tested. Twelve specimens with a single 10 mm thick glass pane and one specimen with an additional insulating glass unit were produced. The testing procedures involved various loading conditions: pure vertical load and different combinations of shear and vertical loading. The test results showed that the adhesive had only a minor influence on the buckling load which was the main failure mechanism. 240 mm high and 4800 mm long timber–glass beams manufactured with adhesives of different stiffness were tested. For the webs, two types of glass were used: annealed float and heat-strengthened glass, in both cases 8 mm thick panes were used. In total, 12 beams were tested in four-point bending until failure. Despite the considerable difference in adhesive stiffness, beam bending stiffness was similar. Concerning load-bearing capacity, the beams with heat-strengthened glass were approximately 50% stronger than the beams made using annealed float glass.
Models for estimation of structural properties of glued laminated timber (glulam) are generally based on the relationship between properties of the individual laminations and properties of the glulam. In this investigation, a recently presented machine strength grading method based on laser scanning of fibre direction fields was applied for determination of axial modulus of elasticity (MOE) profiles along glulam laminations. These profiles were then used to calculate edgewise bending MOE (EB) profiles of glulam beams. The objectives were to investigate the relationship between position of bending failure and position of lowest EB value along investigated beams, and the relationship between the mentioned EB value and bending strength of the beams. It was found that both relationships were rather weak, whereas local bending MOE determined in accordance with EN 408 was predicted with high accuracy on the basis of EB profiles.