ICSI 2021 The 4th International Conference on Structural Integrity
Procedia Structural Integrity
Rigid timber to concrete connection is the most effective solution for timber-concrete composite members subjected to the flexure which provides full composite action and better structural behaviour. One of the most used technologies to produce glued connection of the timber-concrete composite is “dry” method, which includes gluing together of timber and precast concrete slab. This technique has high risk of forming a poor-quality rigid connection in timber-concrete composite, and there are difficulties in controlling the quality of the glued connection. The effect of the non-glued areas in connection between composite layers on the shear stresses and energy absorption were investigated by finite element method and laboratorian experiment. Three timber-concrete composite panels in combination with carbon fibre reinforced plastic composite tapes in the tension zone with the span 1.8 m were statically loaded till the failure by the scheme of three-point bending. Mid-span displacements were measured in the bending test. One specimen was produced by dry method, by gluing together cross-laminated timber panel and prefabricated concrete panel. Timber-concrete qualitative connection of the other two specimens was provided by the granite chips, which were glued on the surface of the cross-laminated timber by epoxy, and then wet concrete was placed. Dimensions of the crushed granite pieces changes within the limits from 16 to 25 mm. The investigated panel with different amount and sizes of non-glued areas in the timber to concrete connection was numerically modelled. Obtained results shown, that the increase of shear stresses is influenced not so much by a total amount of non-glued areas, but by the size of the individual defective areas. Moreover, large non-glued areas significantly reduce the energy absorption of elements subjected to the flexure, which was observed experimentally for defective panel produced by the classical dry method with almost 4 times larger mid-span displacements than for panel with full composite action provided by the proposed production technology of the timber to concrete rigid connection. So, the proposed technology based on the use of granite chips, provides a high-quality connection between timber and concrete layers, with insignificant ration between possible defect and total connection surface area, which is equal to the area of one granite chips edge.
With the growing importance of the principle of sustainability, there is an increasing interest in the use of timber–concrete composite for floors, especially for medium and large span buildings. Timber–concrete composite combines the better properties of both materials and reduces their disadvantages. The most common choice is to use a cross-laminated timber panel as a base for a timber–concrete composite. But a timber–concrete composite solution with plywood rib panels with an adhesive connection between the timber base and fibre reinforced concrete layer is offered as the more cost-effective constructive solution. An algorithm for determining the rational parameters of the panel cross-section has been developed. The software was written based on the proposed algorithm to compare timber–concrete composite panels with cross-laminated timber and plywood rib panel bases. The developed algorithm includes recommendations of forthcoming Eurocode 5 for timber–concrete composite design and an innovative approach to vibration calculations. The obtained data conclude that the proposed structural solution has up to 73% lower cost and up to 71% smaller self-weight. Thus, the proposed timber–concrete composite construction can meet the needs of society for cost-effective and sustainable innovative floor solutions.
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering
Cross-laminated timber is a structural material, which successfully used for structural purposes during the last years. The material is environmentally friendly and decreases CO2 emissions. Cross-laminated timber possesses a decreased level of anisotropy in comparison with solid and glued timber. It is significant for structural units working in bending. So, cross-laminated timber panels are considered as an object of investigation. Design methodology for cross-laminated timber panels subjected to flexure was presented. The methodology is based on LVS EN1995-1-1 and laminated plate theory. The presented methodology was tested experimentally and analytically. Behavior and mechanical properties of cross-laminated timber are analyzed for case of static loading. Two panels with thickness 95mm consisting from three layers were tested in laboratory. Freely supported panels with span equal to 2m, which is loaded by the uniformly distributed load was a design scheme of considered panels. The panel’s width was equal to 1m. Analytical FEM design method, which is based on the using of computational program ANSYSv14 and RFEM5.0, was checked by the experiment. The comparison of stresses acting in the edge fibers and vertical displacements shows that the considered design methodology can be used for engineering calculations. The result difference changes in limits to 30%.
International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies
September 30-October 2 2015, Riga, Latvia
Cross-laminated timber is an environmentally friendly material, which possesses a decreased level of anisotropy in comparison with the solid and glued timber. Cross-laminated timber could be used for load-bearing walls and slabs of multi-storey timber buildings as well as decking structures of pedestrian and road bridges. Design methods of cross-laminated timber elements subjected to bending and compression with bending were considered. The presented methods were experimentally validated and verified by FEM. Two cross-laminated timber slabs were tested at the action of static load. Pine wood was chosen as a board's material. Freely supported beam with the span equal to 1.9 m, which was loaded by the uniformly distributed load, was a design scheme of the considered plates. The width of the plates was equal to 1 m. The considered cross-laminated timber plates were analysed by FEM method. The comparison of stresses acting in the edge fibres of the plate and the maximum vertical displacements shows that both considered methods can be used for engineering calculations. The difference between the results obtained experimentally and analytically is within the limits from 2 to 31%. The difference in results obtained by effective strength and stiffness and transformed sections methods was not significant.
Design methods of cross-laminated timber elements subjected to bending is considered. The methods are based on LVS EN 1995–1–1. The presented methods were checked by the experiment and analytically. Two cross-laminated timber plates with the total thickness of 95 mm were tested under action of static load. The considered cross-laminated timber plates were analysed by FEM method, which is based on the using of computational program ANSYSv14. The comparison of stresses acting in the edge fibres of the plate and the maximum vertical displacements shows that the considered methods can be used for engineering calculations so as the difference between the experimentally and analytically obtained results does not exceed 20%.
Cross-laminated timber is widely used for load-bearing walls and panels of multi-storey timber buildings as well as for decking structure of pedestrian and road bridges. Design procedure for elements from cross-laminated timber was considered and validated by the experiment and FEM. The design procedure is based on the transformed section method. Eight cross-laminated timber panels with span equal to 1.8 m were experimentally checked under the action of static load. The difference between the experimentally and analytically obtained results is within the limits from 3.3 up to 20%.