The use of mass timber structural products in tall building applications (6–20 stories) is becoming more common around the world including North America. A potential concern is the environmental wetting of mass timber products during construction because such products may dry out more slowly than light-frame structural lumber, and wood, as an organic material, is susceptible to deterioration at elevated moisture contents. In order to better understand the moisture conditions present in high rise timber constructions, a long-term moisture monitoring program was implemented on an eight story, mixed-use, mass timber framed building in Portland, Oregon. The building was monitored with an array of moisture meters to track moisture content throughout the building’s construction and operation. This paper presents data covering a period just over one year starting from the manufacture of crosslaminated timber (CLT) panels. Hygrothermal properties of CLT samples of the same type used in the building were measured in the laboratory, and wetting and drying experiments on representative CLT samples were conducted. Simulated moisture contents using a one-dimensional hygrothermal model compared reasonably well with laboratory experiments and building site measurements.
International Conference on New Horizons in Green Civil Engineering
April 25-27,2018. Victoria, Canada
This paper presents preliminary findings from an ongoing research program instrumenting CLT buildings to measure wood moisture content. An overview of the research program is presented along with data from first year of moisture monitoring in an 8-story building in Portland, Oregon. This project measures the wood moisture content throughout the construction cycle, including the fabrication, shipping, staging, and erection of the panels. These preliminary field measurements can help characterize moisture changes in CLT during construction and guide the construction of future CLT buildings.
In the US, codified seismic design procedure requires the use of seismic performance factors which are currently not available for CLT shear wall systems. The study presented herein focuses on the determination of seismic design factors for CLT shear walls in platform type construction using the FEMA P-695 process. Results from the study will be proposed for implementation in the seismic design codes in the US. The project approach is outlined and selected results of full-scale shear wall testing are presented and discussed. Archetype development, which is required as part of the FEMA P-695 process, is briefly explained with an example. Quasi-static cyclic tests were conducted on CLT shear walls to systematically investigate the effects of various parameters. The key aspect of these tests is that they systematically investigate each potential modelling attribute that is judged within the FEMA P-695 uncertainty quantification process. Boundary constraints and gravity loading were both found to have a beneficial effect on the wall performance, i.e. higher strength and deformation capacity. Higher aspect ratio panels (4:1) demonstrated lower stiffness and substantially larger deformation capacity compared to moderate aspect ratio panels (2:1). However, based on the test results there is likely a lower bound for aspect ratio (at 2:1) where it ceases to benefit deformation capacity of the wall. This is due to the transition of the wall behaviour from rocking to sliding. Phenomenological models were used in modelling CLT shear walls. Archetype selection and analysis procedure was demonstrated and nonlinear time history analysis was conducted using different wall configurations.