The performance of structural timber connections is of utmost importance since they control the global response of the building. A ductile failure mechanism on the global scale is desirable, especially in the design of structures in seismic areas, where dissipative components in which ductile failure modes need to be ensured are considered. Therefore, the knowledge of possible brittle failure modes of connections is crucial. The paper investigates the brittle failures of laterally loaded dowel-type connections in cross-laminated timber subjected to tensile load in a lap joint configuration through experimental investigations and analytical estimations. A set of 13 different test series has been performed with fully threaded self-tapping screws of 8 mm diameter and different lengths (40 to 100 mm) in cross-laminated timber composed of 3 or 5 layers (layer thickness range from 20 to 40 mm), giving rise to the activation of different brittle failure modes at different depths. Plug shear was among the most typically observed failure modes. A previously proposed model for the brittle capacity was applied to the tested connections at the characteristic level. As shown by the performed statistical analysis, the existing model is not reliable and mainly unconservative. A very low performance is observed (CCC = 0.299), but with a good correlation (c = 0.750) for the tests in the parallel direction. Further research work is required to improve the current model predictions and to gain a better understanding of the underlying resisting mechanisms.
This state-of-the-art report has been prepared within COST Action FP1402 Basis of structural timber design from research to standards, Working Group 3 Connections. The Action was established to create an expert network that is able to develop and establish the specific information needed for standardization committee decisions. Its main objective is to overcome the gap between broadly available scientific results and the specific information needed by standardization committees. This necessitates an expert network that links practice with research, i.e. technological developments with scientific background. COST presents the ideal basis to foster this type of joint effort. Chapter 8 Connections presents an integral part of Eurocode 5 and is in need of revision. This state-of-the-art report shall provide code writers with background information necessary for the development of the so-called Second Generation of the Eurocodes, now aimed to be produced in 2022.
This paper explores the possibility of using flexible adhesives to dissipate energy in CLT buildings during earthquakes. In the first series of tests, a rod glued in a CLT panel with flexible adhesive was investigated. The connection was tested in pull-pull configuration using cyclic, tension-only loading. Different rod diameters and different thicknesses of the glue layer were tested. The tests have shown that the adhesive can resist large deformations and exhibits fairly large energy dissipation capacity. Based on the test results the numerical analyses were performed to test the behaviour of the connection when applied in CLT buildings. Existing constitutive models available in OpenSees software were used to simulate the specific hysteretic behaviour of the connection. The results have shown that the CLT wall anchored with "flexible" glued-in rods would have a significant energy dissipation capacity if a sufficient number of them were used as the hold-down devices. Such system could be used to dissipate energy in seismic areas.
This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign investigating the seismic behaviour of full-size cross laminated timber (CLT) wall systems with sound-insulated shear-tension angle brackets. The main aim of the study was to investigate the influence of more and less flexible soundproofing bedding under the CLT wall. The paper shows a comparison of lateral load-bearing capacity, displacement capacity, ductility and stiffness obtained from racking tests on uninsulated specimens and specimens with various types of bedding insulation and levels of vertical load. Moreover, an analytical procedure to estimate the lateral load-displacement response of CLT walls with bedding insulation is proposed. This model is verified by direct comparison to the experimentally determined lateral load-displacement backbone curves. The results show that the elastomeric bedding does not have a significant effect on the bearing capacity of the wall system tested, but it reduces the stiffness and increases the displacement capacity. Due to the large decrease in stiffness, the insulation causes an overall reduction in ductility. The analytical estimation proposed was able to capture the reduction in lateral stiffness and adequately predict the load-bearing capacity.