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Bending Properties of Cross Laminated Timber with Layer Arrangement Using Different Species

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1599
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Park, Sun-Hyang
Kim, Keon-Ho
Lee, Sang-Joon
Pang, Sung-Jun
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Delamination Test
Bending Test
Japanese Larch
Korean Red Pine
Shear Strength
MOE
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 1931-1938
Summary
To evaluate the mechanical performance of the cross laminated timber (CLT) as the structural board materials using domestic species, the delamination test and the transverse bending test were conducted. The CLT used in the tests consisted of 3 layers of laminated timber made of Japanese larch and Korean red pine. The combinations for lamination were then divided on species of layer and grades of laminae. In the bending test, the loading directions were shown to be parallel and perpendicular to width direction of specimens, which is considered as the applicable direction in wooden building. The result of test showed that the bending strength of larix CLT was higher than that of pine CLT in combination of single species. In case of combination of mixed species, the bending properties CLT using larix major layer was higher than those of pine surface layer. It means that the surface layer has a more influence on bending properties of CLT, than the core layer does.
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Comparisons of Bearing Properties for Various Oriented Glulam Using Digital Image Correlation

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1459
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Young Jeong, Gi
Kong, Jin Hyuk
Lee, Sang-Joon
Pang, Sung-Jun
Publisher
Springer Japan
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Digital Image Correlation
Orientation
Bearing Strength
Yield Load
Strain Distribution
Failure
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Wood Science
Summary
The goal of this study was to analyze the bearing properties of the differently oriented glulam using digital image correlation (DIC). Six differently oriented specimens associated with three anatomical directions including longitudinal (L), radial (R), and tangential (T), and 12-mm drift pins were used to analyze the bearing properties, including yield load and bearing strength. The highest bearing strength of 22.57 MPa from RL was found, whereas the lowest bearing strength of 6.47 MPa from LR was found. Different strain distributions were observed from the differently oriented bearing specimens using DIC. Different failure ratios of the differently oriented specimens were highly related to the strain distributions. Although the bearing properties were found to be different between the differently oriented specimens, for the connection design aspect, the bearing properties of glulam could be grouped as RL and TL specimens, RT and TR specimens, and LR and LT specimens.
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Effects of knot area ratio on the bending properties of cross-laminated timber made from Korean pine

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3026
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Pang, Sung-Jun
Shim, Kug-Bo
Kim,Keon-Ho
Organization
Seoul National University
Publisher
Springer
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Korean Pine
Knot Cluster
Knot Area Ratio
Bending Test
Research Status
Complete
Series
Wood Science and Technology
Summary
The effect of knot clusters on the bending properties of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) cross-laminated timber (CLT) was analyzed to increase the utilization of low-quality lumber. The laminae used to manufacture the CLT were classified into five groups, four major layer groups, and one minor layer group, by mechanical grade and knot area ratio (KAR) of the lamina. Out-of-plane bending tests were conducted on CLT made from each layer group. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) of the manufactured CLT was closely correlated with the MOE of each individual major axis lamina. In the case of the modulus of rupture (MOR) of the CLT, the KAR of the laminae used in the major axis layer was more significantly affected than the MOE. The main finding is that the lower fifth percentile MOR value of the CLT specimens with large knots (KAR > 0.5) was higher than the acceptable reference value of E3 grade CLT (ANSI/APA PRG 320) made from a similar lamina grade. Therefore, the use of low-quality lumber to manufacture CLT can be expanded under the condition of limitation of the greater KAR.
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Lateral resistance of mass timber shear wall connected by withdrawal-type connectors

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2847
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Connections
Seismic
Mechanical Properties
Material
Other Materials
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Pang, Sung-Jun
Ahn, Kyung-Sun
Kang, Seog Goo
Oh, Jung-Kwon
Organization
Seoul National University
Publisher
SpringerOpen
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
Other Materials
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Connections
Seismic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Ply-lam
Shear Walls
Lateral Resistance
Kinematic Model
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Wood Science
Summary
In this study, the lateral resistances of mass timber shear walls were investigated for seismic design. The lateral resistances were predicted by kinematic models with mechanical properties of connectors, and compared with experimental data. Four out of 7 shear wall specimens consisted of a single Ply-lam panel and withdrawal-type connectors. Three out of 7 shear wall specimens consisted of two panels made by dividing a single panel in half. The divided panels were connected by 2 or 4 connectors like a single panel before being divided. The applied vertical load was 0, 24, or 120 kN, and the number of connectors for connecting the Ply-lam wall-to-floor was 2 or 4. As a result, the tested data were 6.3 to 52.7% higher than the predicted value by kinematic models, and it means that the lateral resistance can be designed by the behavior of the connector, and the prediction will be safe. The effects of wall-to-wall connectors, wall-to-floor connectors and vertical loads on the shear wall were analyzed with the experimental data.
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Prediction of bending performance for a separable CLT-concrete composite slab connected by notch connectors

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2931
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Author
Pang, Sung-Jun
Ahn, Kyung-Sun
Jeong, Seok-man
Lee, Gun-Cheol
Kim, Hyeon Soo
Oh, Jung-Kwon
Organization
Seoul National University
Korea National University of Transportation
Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Composite Slab
Bending Strength
Notched Connection
Round Notch
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Building Engineering
Summary
In this study, the bending performance of a separable cross-laminated timber (CLT)–concrete composite slab for reducing environmental impact was investigated. The slab has consisted of CLT and eco–concrete, and round-notch shape shear connectors resist the shear force between the CLT and eco-concrete. The eco–concrete was composed of a high-sulfated calcium silicate (HSCS) cement, which ensures low energy consumption in the production process. The bending stiffness and load-carrying capacities of the slab were theoretically predicted based on the shear properties of the notch connectors and validated with an experimental test. The shear properties of two types of notch shear connectors (Ø100 mm and Ø200 mm) were measured by planar shear tests. As a result, the stochastically predicted bending stiffness of the slab (with Ø100 mm shear connector) was 0.364 × 1012 N mm2, which was almost similar to test data. The load-carrying capacities of the slab were governed by the shear failure of the notch connectors, and the lower fifth percentile point estimate (5% PE) was 21.9 kN, which was 7.9% higher than the prediction (20.2 kN). In a parameter study, the effect of notch diameter for the CLT-concrete slab span was analyzed depending on the applied loads, and the maximum spans of the slab with Ø100 mm notch or Ø200 mm notch were not significantly different.
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Prediction of Shear Performance on Cross Laminated Timber Wall with Wall to Wall Connections

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1781
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Oh, Jung-Kwon
Hong, Jung-Pyo
Kim, Chul-Ki
Pang, Sung-Jun
Lee, Hyeon-Jeong
Jang, Sung-Il
Park, Moon-Jae
Lee, Jun-Jae
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Shear Performance
Failure Mode
Displacement
Peak Load
Model
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 5503-5510
Summary
A cross-laminated timber (CLT) wall plays a role of resisting shear stress induced by lateral forces as well as resisting vertical load. Due to the press size, CLT panels have a limitation in its size. To minimize the initial investment, some glulam manufactures wanted to make a shear wall element with small-size CLT panels and panel-to-panel...
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Prediction of Withdrawal Resistance for a Screw in Hybrid Cross-Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2687
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Pang, Sung-Jun
Ahn, Kyung-Sun
Kang, Seog Goo
Oh, Jung-Kwon
Publisher
SpringerOpen
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Self-Tapping Screws
Withdrawal Resistance
Screw
Withdrawal Stiffness
Withdrawal Strength
Connections
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Wood Science
Summary
The aim of this study was to predict the withdrawal resistance of a screw in hybrid cross-laminated timber (CLT) composed of two types of lamina layers. A theoretical model to predict the withdrawal resistance was developed from the shear mechanism between a screw and the layers in hybrid CLT. The parameters for the developed model were the withdrawal stiffness and strength that occurs when a screw is withdrawn, and the penetration depth of a screw in layers of a wood material. The prediction model was validated with an experimental test. Screws with two different diameters and lengths (Ø6.5 × 65 mm and Ø8.0 × 100 mm) were inserted in a panel composed of solid wood and plywood layers, and the withdrawal resistances of the screws were evaluated. At least 30 specimens for each group were tested to derive the lower 5th percentile values. As a result, the developed model predictions were 86–88% of the lower 5th percentile values of hybrid CLT from the properties of the lamina layer. This shows that the withdrawal resistance of hybrid CLT can be designed from the properties of its layer.
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Shear Behavior of Cross-Laminated Timber Wall Consisting of Small Panels

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1411
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Oh, Jung-Kwon
Hong, Jung-Pyo
Kim, Chul-Ki
Pang, Sung-Jun
Lee, Sang-Joon
Lee, Jun-Jae
Publisher
Springer Japan
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Kinematic Model
Peak Load
Displacement
Panel-to-Panel
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Wood Science
Summary
A cross-laminated timber (CLT) wall plays the role of resisting shear stress induced by lateral forces as well as vertical load. Due to the press size, CLT panels have a limitation in size. To minimize the initial investment, some glulam manufactures wanted to make a shear wall element with small-size CLT panels and panel-to-panel connections and wanted to know whether the shear wall would have equivalent shear performance with the wall made of a single CLT panel. In this study, this was investigated by experiments and kinematic model analysis. Two shear walls made of small CLT panels were tested. The model showed a good agreement with test results in the envelope curve. Even though the shear walls were made of small panels, the global peak load did not decrease significantly compared with the wall made of a single CLT panel, but the global displacement showed a large increase. From this analysis, it was concluded that the shear wall can be designed with small CLT panels, but displacement should be designed carefully.
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Stochastic Model for Predicting the Bending Strength of Glued-Laminated Timber Based on the Knot Area Ratio and Localized MOE in Lamina

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1379
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Author
Pang, Sung-Jun
Oh, Jung-Kwon
Hong, Jung-Pyo
Lee, Sang-Joon
Lee, Jun-Jae
Publisher
Springer Japan
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Stochastic Model
Bending Strength
Modulus of Elasticity
Tensile Strength
Knot Area Ratios
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Wood Science
Summary
The aim of this study was to develop a stochastic model for predicting the bending strength distribution of glued-laminated timber (GLT). The developed model required the localized modulus of elasticity (MOE) and tensile strengths of laminae as input properties. The tensile strength was estimated using a regression model based on the localized MOEs and knot area ratios (KAR) which were experimentally measured for lamina grades samples. The localized MOE was obtained using a machine stress-rated grader, and the localized KAR was determined using an image-processing system. The bending strength distributions in four types of GLTs were simulated using the developed GLT beam model; these four types included: (1) GLT beams without finger joints; (2) GLT beams with finger joints; (3) GLT beams with different lamina sizes; and (4) GLT beams with different combinations of lamina grades. The simulated bending strength distributions were compared with actual test data of 2.4 and 4.8 m-long GLTs. The Kolmogorov–Smirnov goodness-of-fit tests showed that all of the simulated bending strength distributions agreed well with the test data. Especially, good agreement was shown in the fifth percentile point estimate of bending strength with the difference of approximately 1%.
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9 records – page 1 of 1.