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17 records – page 1 of 2.

Evaluating Laboratory Measurements for Sound Insulation of Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) Floors: Configurations in Lightweight Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3157
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Vardaxis, Nikolaos-Georgios
Hagberg, Delphine Bard
Dahlström, Jessica
Organization
Lund University
Editor
Park, Junhong
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Airborne Sound
Impact Noise
Sound Insulation
Research Status
Complete
Series
Applied Sciences
Summary
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) floors with supplementary layers or floating floors comprise a common solution in new multistory timber structures. However, bare CLT components provide poor sound insulation, especially in low frequencies during structure-borne sound propagation. Thus, floor configurations in wooden buildings deploy more layers for improved acoustic behavior. Twelve contemporary CLT floors were analyzed after laboratory measurements of airborne sound reduction and impact sound transmission utilizing the following indicators: Rw, Rw, 100, Rw, 50, Ln,w, Ln,w,100, and Ln,w,50 (per ISO 10140, ISO 717). An increase in sound insulation was achieved thanks to added total mass and thickness, testing layers of the following: elastic mat for vibration isolation, wool insulation, gypsum boards, plywood, concrete screed, and wooden parquet floor. The results indicate that multilayered CLT floors can provide improvements of up to 22 dB for airborne sound and 32 dB for impact sound indicators compared with the bare CLT slab. Floating floor configurations with dry floor solutions (concrete screed) and wooden parquet floors stand out as the optimal cases. The parquet floor provides a 1–2 dB improvement only for impact sound indicators in floating floor setups (or higher in three cases).
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A unified design proposal for shear stress prediction in crossing areas for cross laminated timber at in-plane shear and beam loading conditions

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3186
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Design and Systems
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Walls
Author
Danielsson, Henrik
Jelec, Mario
Organization
Lund University
Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Walls
Topic
Design and Systems
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Unified Design Proposal
Crossing Area
In-Plane Shear
Research Status
Complete
Series
Construction and Building Materials
Summary
Environmental and urbanization challenges during the last few decades encouraged steady growth of mass timber construction where attention is drawn to cross laminated timber (CLT) as one of the most interesting products in terms of mechanical properties, versatility, efficient prefabrication and sustainability. Standardisation and codification regarding testing and design of CLT elements are hence pointed out as one of the main issues within the ongoing revision procedure of Eurocode 5. A consistent and unified design approach for CLT at pure in-plane shear loading conditions (shear walls) and at in-plane beam loading conditions is however still missing. This paper deals with analytical models for the determination of stress components related to predictions of load bearing capacity of CLT with respect to shear failure mode III – shear failure in the crossing areas constituted by the flatwise bonded areas between laminations of adjacent layers. This failure mode is relevant for both pure in-plane shear loading and in-plane beam loading conditions. The paper presents a review of previously proposed models for the prediction of shear stresses in crossing areas of CLT, for both loading conditions. Comparisons between FE-results and model predictions are reviewed indicating significant differences between them concerning the predicted influence of the CLT element lay-up and values of maximum shear stresses. Based on simplifications of models previously presented, a unified design proposal that is based on a rational and consistent mechanical background for both loading situations and that shows overall good agreement with FE-results is presented.
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Brittle failure of laterally loaded self-tapping screw connections for cross-laminated timber structures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3120
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Connections
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Azinovic, Boris
Cabrero, José Manuel
Danielsson, Henrik
Pazlar, Tomaž
Organization
Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute
University of Navarra
Lund University
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Connections
Keywords
Brittle Failure
Analytical Model
Overstrength
Research Status
Complete
Series
Engineering Structures
Summary
The performance of structural timber connections is of utmost importance since they control the global response of the building. A ductile failure mechanism on the global scale is desirable, especially in the design of structures in seismic areas, where dissipative components in which ductile failure modes need to be ensured are considered. Therefore, the knowledge of possible brittle failure modes of connections is crucial. The paper investigates the brittle failures of laterally loaded dowel-type connections in cross-laminated timber subjected to tensile load in a lap joint configuration through experimental investigations and analytical estimations. A set of 13 different test series has been performed with fully threaded self-tapping screws of 8 mm diameter and different lengths (40 to 100 mm) in cross-laminated timber composed of 3 or 5 layers (layer thickness range from 20 to 40 mm), giving rise to the activation of different brittle failure modes at different depths. Plug shear was among the most typically observed failure modes. A previously proposed model for the brittle capacity was applied to the tested connections at the characteristic level. As shown by the performed statistical analysis, the existing model is not reliable and mainly unconservative. A very low performance is observed (CCC = 0.299), but with a good correlation (c = 0.750) for the tests in the parallel direction. Further research work is required to improve the current model predictions and to gain a better understanding of the underlying resisting mechanisms.
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A Numerical Study of the Stiffness and Strength of Cross-Laminated Timber Wall-to-Floor Connections under Compression Perpendicular to the Grain

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2839
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Floors
Author
Akter, Shaheda
Schweigler, Michael
Serrano, Erik
Bader, Thomas
Organization
Linnaeus University
Lund University
Editor
Brandner, Reinhard
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Floors
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Parametric Study
Perpendicular to the Grain
Elasto-Plastic Behaviour
Numerical Modeling
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
The use of cross-laminated timber (CLT) in multi-story buildings is increasing due to the potential of wood to reduce green house gas emissions and the high load-bearing capacity of CLT. Compression perpendicular to the grain (CPG) in CLT is an important design aspect, especially in multi-storied platform-type CLT buildings, where CPG stress develops in CLT floors due to loads from the roof or from upper floors. Here, CPG of CLT wall-to-floor connections are studied by means of finite element modeling with elasto-plastic material behavior based on a previously validated Quadratic multi-surface (QMS) failure criterion. Model predictions were first compared with experiments on CLT connections, before the model was used in a parameter study, to investigate the influence of wall and floor thicknesses, the annual ring pattern of the boards and the number of layers in the CLT elements. The finite element model agreed well with experimental findings. Connection stiffness was overestimated, while the strength was only slightly underestimated. The parameter study revealed that the wall thickness effect on the stiffness and strength of the connection was strongest for the practically most relevant wall thicknesses between 80 and about 160 mm. It also showed that an increasing floor thickness leads to higher stiffness and strength, due to the load dispersion effect. The increase was found to be stronger for smaller wall thicknesses. The influence of the annual ring orientation, or the pith location, was assessed as well and showed that boards cut closer to the pith yielded lower stiffness and strength. The findings of the parameter study were fitted with regression equations. Finally, a dimensionless ratio of the wall-to-floor thickness was used for deriving regression equations for stiffness and strength, as well as for load and stiffness increase factors, which could be used for the engineering design of CLT connections.
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Improved low-frequency performance of cross-laminated timber floor panels by informed material selection

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2961
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Persson, Peter
Flodén, Ola
Danielsson, Henrik
Peplow, Andrew
Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard
Organization
Lund University
Aarhus University
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Vibroacoustic Response
Floor Vibration
Wood Species
Strength Class
Finite Element Method (FEM)
Research Status
Complete
Series
Applied Acoustics
Summary
The paper demonstrates improved structural low-frequency vibroacoustic performance of cross-laminated timber (CLT) floor panels by informed selection of the wood material. The use of wood species and strength classes that are not traditionally assigned to CLT panels was investigated in order to study their influence on dynamic characteristics and vibroacoustic response metrics. The potential of each of the orthotropic material properties to alternate the vibration response was examined to determine the governing parameters of the low-frequency vibroacoustic performance. The effects on transfer mobility response functions, and eigenfrequencies and mode shapes were used for a rigorous performance study of the panels. It was found that using laminations with stiffness properties typical for hardwoods ash, beech, and birch can significantly improve the performance of a CLT floor panel, and they outperform laminations of typical softwood strength classes.
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Determination of Coefficients of Friction for Laminated Veneer Lumber on Steel under High Pressure Loads

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2822
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Connections
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Dorn, Michael
Habrova, Karolina
Koubek, Radek
Serrano, Erik
Organization
Linnaeus University
Czech University of Life Sciences Prague
Lund University
Publisher
Springer Nature
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Connections
Keywords
Static Friction
High Pressure
Angle-to-grain
Moisture Content
Steel
Research Status
Complete
Series
Friction
Summary
In this study, static coefficients of friction for laminated veneer lumber on steel surfaces were determined experimentally. The focus was on the frictional behaviors at different pressure levels, which were studied in combination with other influencing parameters: fiber orientation, moisture content, and surface roughness. Coefficients of friction were obtained as 0.10–0.30 for a smooth steel surface and as high as 0.80 for a rough steel surface. Pressure influenced the measured coefficients of friction, and lower normal pressures yielded higher coefficients. The influence of fiber angle was observed to be moderate, although clearly detectable, thereby resulting in a higher coefficient of friction when sliding perpendicular rather than parallel to the grain. Moist specimens contained higher coefficients of friction than oven-dry specimens. The results provide realistic values for practical applications, particularly for use as input parameters of numerical simulations where the role of friction is often wrongfully considered.
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Glued-in Rods in Cross Laminated Timber – Numerical Simulations and Parametric Studies

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2231
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Azinovic, Boris
Danielsson, Henrik
Serrano, Erik
Kramar, Miha
Organization
Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute
Lund University
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Glued-In Rods
FE Analysis
Numerical Modelling
Load Bearing Capacity
Research Status
Complete
Series
Construction and Building Materials
Summary
Numerical simulations and parametric studies of glued-in rods in cross-laminated timber have been performed. The simulations were based on 3D finite element analysis, using a cohesive surface model for the bond-lines between the laminations and the bond-line along the rod. The parametric studies investigated the influence of the glued-in length, the rod diameter, and the rod-to-grain angle on the load-bearing capacity and stiffness of the connection. The analyses showed that the load-bearing capacity generally increases with the glued-in length and the rod diameter, which agrees well with experiments. For different rod-to-grain angles, different mechanical behaviour was observed, especially considering the failure modes.
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Cross Laminated Timber at In-Plane Beam Loading – New Analytical Model Predictions and Relation to EC5

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2232
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Jelec, Mario
Danielsson, Henrik
Serrano, Erik
Rajcic, Vlatka
Organization
University of Osijek
Lund University
University of Zagreb
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Failure Mode
Analytical Model
FE Analysis
Shear Failure
Conference
INTER
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The aim of the paper is to present a new model in terms of improvements of the original analytical model by Flaig & Blass (2013). Model improvements as presented by Danielsson & Serrano (2018) are reviewed and further improvements of that model are also presented. The differences between the models concern internal force and stress distributions relevant for shear failure mode III of CLT beams. Predictions of the original and the new analytical models are compared to results of 3D FE-analyses and design proposals based on the new analytical model are presented.
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Experimental Investigation of the Axial Strength of Glued-in Rods in Cross Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2230
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Azinovic, Boris
Serrano, Erik
Kramar, Miha
Pazlar, Tomaž
Organization
The Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute
Lund University
Publisher
Springer Netherlands
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Glued-In Rods
Pull-Pull Tests
Failure Mechanisms
Research Status
Complete
Series
Materials and Structures
Summary
This paper presents results from an experimental assessment of glued-in rods in cross laminated timber (CLT). For the purposes of the study more than 60 pull–pull tests were performed, where the specimens varied in terms of bonded-in length (from 80 to 400 mm), rod diameter (16–24 mm) and rod-to-grain angle (parallel and perpendicular). Several different failure modes that are not common for other applications of glued-in rods (e.g., a failure between CLT layers) were obtained for the analysed CLT specimens. It was found that these failure mechanisms can substantially influence the obtained ultimate tension loads. At the end, the experimental results were compared with empirical and semi-empirical equations for estimating the pull-out strength of glued-in rods in structural timber and glulam. The comparison showed that most of the existing equations overestimate the ultimate tension loads for specimens with the rod parallel to the grain and underestimate the ultimate tension load for specimens with the rod perpendicular to the grain. The results vary because the possible CLT failure modes were not included in previous studies. Further studies are proposed to improve the equations for glued-in rods in CLT.
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Strength and Stiffness of Cross Laminated Timber at In-Plane Beam Loading

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2233
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Author
Danielsson, Henrik
Jelec, Mario
Serrano, Erik
Organization
Lund University
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Strength
Stiffness
In-Plane Loading
Analytical Models
Holes
Notch
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This report concerns element strength and stiffness of cross laminated timber (CLT) at in-plane beam loading and includes presentation of experimental investigations and a review of some analytical models for structural analysis. A total of 20 individual tests were carried out, divided into five different test series which each comprise four nominally equal tests. The test series include prismatic beams (two test series), beams with a hole (two test series) and beams with an end-notch (one test series). All CLT elements were composed of 5 layers of laminations, with three layers of longitudinal laminations of width 40 mm and two layers of transversal laminations of width 20 mm. Test results relating to beam strength are presented in terms of maximum applied load and also in terms of stress components as calculated by analytical models. The review of models for stress analysis reveals significant influence of the element layup and laminations width on the predicted stresses. Test results relating to beam stiffness are present as element shear stiffness and element local and global modulus of elasticity, evaluated based on the European test standard EN 408.
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17 records – page 1 of 2.