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Block Shear Testing of CLT Panels: An Exploratory Study

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2624
Year of Publication
2011
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Casilla, Romulo
Pirvu, Ciprian
Wang, Brad
Lum, Conroy
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2011
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Adhesive
Block Shear Test
Failure
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
A study was conducted with the primary objective of examining the efficacy of a standard block shear test method to assess the bond quality of cross-laminated timber (CLT) products. The secondary objective was to examine the effect of pressure and adhesive type on the block shear properties of CLT panels. The wood material used for the CLT samples was Select grade nominal 25 x 152-mm (1 x 6-inch) Hem-Fir. Three adhesive types were evaluated under two test conditions: dry and vacuum-pressure-dry (VPD), the latter as described in CSA standard O112.10. Shear strength and wood failure were evaluated for each test condition. Among the four properties evaluated (dry and VPD shear strength, and dry and VPD wood failure), only the VPD wood failure showed consistency in assessing the bond quality of the CLT panels in terms of the factors (pressure and adhesive type) evaluated. Adhesive type had a strong effect on VPD wood failure. The different performance levels of the three adhesives were useful in providing insights into how the VPD block shear wood failure test responds to significant changes in CLT manufacturing parameters. The pressure used in fabricating the CLT panels showed a strong effect on VPD wood failure as demonstrated for one of the adhesives. VPD wood failure decreased with decreasing pressure. Although dry shear wood failure was able to detect the effect of pressure, it failed to detect the effect of adhesive type on the bond quality of the CLT panels. These results provide support as to the effectiveness of the VPD block shear wood failure test in assessing the bond quality of CLT panels. The VPD conditioning treatment was able to identify poor bondline manufacturing conditions by observed changes in the mode of failure, which is also considered an indication of wood-adhesive bond durability. These results corroborate those obtained from the delamination test conducted in a previous study (Casilla et al. 2011). Along with the delamination test proposed in an earlier report, the VPD block shear wood failure can be used to assess the CLT bond quality. Although promising, more testing is needed to assess whether the VPD block shear wood failure can be used in lieu of the delamination test. The other properties studied (shear strength and dry wood failure), however, were not found to be useful in consistently assessing bond line manufacturing quality.
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Checking in CLT Panels: An Exploratory Study

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2625
Year of Publication
2011
Topic
Moisture
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Casilla, Romulo
Lum, Conroy
Pirvu, Ciprian
Wang, Brad
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2011
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Moisture
Keywords
Panels
Testing Methods
Surface Checks
Moisture Content
Gaps
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
A study was conducted with the primary objective of gathering information for the development of a protocol for evaluating the surface quality of cross-laminated timber (CLT) products. The secondary objectives were to examine the effect of moisture content (MC) reduction on the development of surface checks and gaps, and find ways of minimizing the checking problems in CLT panels. The wood materials used for the CLT samples were rough-sawn Select grade Hem-Fir boards 25 x 152 mm (1 x 6 inches). Polyurethane was the adhesive used. The development of checks and gaps were evaluated after drying at two temperature levels at ambient relative humidity (RH). The checks and gaps, as a result of drying to 6% to 10% MC from an initial MC of 13%, occurred randomly depending upon the characteristics of the wood and the manner in which the outer laminas were laid up in the panel. Suggestions are made for minimizing checking and gap problems in CLT panels. The checks and gaps close when the panels are exposed to higher humidity. Guidelines were proposed for the development of a protocol for classifying CLT panels into appearance grades in terms of the severity of checks and gaps. The grades can be based on the estimated dimensions of the checks and gaps, their frequency, and the number of laminas in which they appear.
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Free
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Commentary on Closure Penetration Tests on CLT Fire Separations

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2602
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Fire
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Author
Lum, Conroy
Thomas, Tony
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Topic
Fire
Design and Systems
Keywords
Fire Resistance
Fire Tests
Panels
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Fire tests on a double egress fire door installed in two Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) wall panels were conducted. The purpose of the testing was to identify design consideration for detailing the interface between a 90 min. listed door assembly and a CLT wall with a 2-hr fire resistance. See also QAI Laboratories test reports: T895-6a Rev.2, and T895-6b Rev. 1
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Free
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Commentary on Service Penetration Tests on CLT Fire Separations

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2596
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Lum, Conroy
Thomas, Tony
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Pipe Penetrations
Firestops
Performance
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Fire tests on two unprotected 5-ply Cross Laminated Tmber (CLT) floors with pipe penetrations were conducted. The purpose of the testing was to evaluate concepts for detailing metallic and plastic pipe penetration firestops. Although the focus was on flame through performance, some temperature data was collected on insulated and uninsulated metallic pipes. See also QAI Laboratories test reports: T895-5a, and T895-5b Rev.3
Online Access
Free
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Commentary on Service Penetration Tests on CLT Fire Separations

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2603
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Fire
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Lum, Conroy
Thomas, Tony
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Fire
Design and Systems
Keywords
Firestops
Pipe Penetrations
Performance
Fire Tests
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Fire tests on two unprotected 5-ply Cross Laminated Tmber (CLT) floors with pipe penetrations were conducted. The purpose of the testing was to evaluate concepts for detailing metallic and plastic pipe penetration firestops. Although the focus was on flame through performance, some temperature data was collected on insulated and uninsulated metallic pipes. See also QAI Laboratories test reports: T895-5a, and T895-5b Rev.3
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Free
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The North American Product Standard for Cross-Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue760
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
General Application
Author
Yeh, Borjen
Gagnon, Sylvain
Williamson, Tom
Pirvu, Ciprian
Lum, Conroy
Kretschmann, David
Publisher
Forest Products Society
Year of Publication
2012
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
General Application
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
International Building Code
North America
Standards
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Wood Design Focus
Online Access
Free
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A Survey on Modelling of Mass Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1916
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
Timber (unspecified)
Application
Wood Building Systems
General Application
Author
Chen, Zhiyong
Karacabeyli, Erol
Lum, Conroy
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
Timber (unspecified)
Application
Wood Building Systems
General Application
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Numerical Modelling
Research
Designers
Prediction
Software Tools
Empirical Equations
Design Challenges
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
A survey was conducted under the "Renessaince in Wood Construction" project that was funded by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) under the Transformative Technologies Program to see information about numerical modelling on mass timber buildings. A questionnaire was sent to designers and researchers covering different performance attributes. The compiled information includes the available software packages and resources of empirical equations that are used by the designers and researchers for predicting the structural, fire, acoustic, and building envelope (energy and durability) performance of mass timber buildings, and the challenges that they are facing in using those tools. This report summarizes the input obtained from practicing designers and researchers who responded to this survey.
Online Access
Free
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Technical Guide for the Design and Construction of Tall Wood Buildings in Canada

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2610
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Design and Systems
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Karacabeyli, Erol
Lum, Conroy
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Guides
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Tall Timber Buildings
Construction
Building Construction
Sustainable Construction
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Building tall in wood is not a new phenomenon. In fact, Canada has a history of constructing tall wood buildings out of heavy timber and brick elements, reaching up to nine storeys. In the early 20th century, with the increase in reinforced concrete and structural steel research and construction, and with growing concerns over fire and durability, the structural use of wood fell out of common use in tall buildings. This trend is beginning to reverse, however. In the last few decades, the world has seen a resurgence of mass timber products and systems that are paving the way for tall wood buildings. This triggered an initiative by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to support tall wood building demonstration projects to enhance Canada’s position as a global leader in wood building construction, by showcasing the application and performance of advanced wood technologies. The Technical Guide for the Design and Construction of Tall Wood Buildings in Canada has been prepared to assist architects, engineers, code consultants, developers, building owners, and Authorities Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) in understanding the unique issues to be addressed when developing and constructing tall wood buildings.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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8 records – page 1 of 1.