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Block Shear Testing of CLT Panels: An Exploratory Study

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2624
Year of Publication
2011
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Casilla, Romulo
Pirvu, Ciprian
Wang, Brad
Lum, Conroy
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2011
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Adhesive
Block Shear Test
Failure
Research Status
Complete
Summary
A study was conducted with the primary objective of examining the efficacy of a standard block shear test method to assess the bond quality of cross-laminated timber (CLT) products. The secondary objective was to examine the effect of pressure and adhesive type on the block shear properties of CLT panels. The wood material used for the CLT samples was Select grade nominal 25 x 152-mm (1 x 6-inch) Hem-Fir. Three adhesive types were evaluated under two test conditions: dry and vacuum-pressure-dry (VPD), the latter as described in CSA standard O112.10. Shear strength and wood failure were evaluated for each test condition. Among the four properties evaluated (dry and VPD shear strength, and dry and VPD wood failure), only the VPD wood failure showed consistency in assessing the bond quality of the CLT panels in terms of the factors (pressure and adhesive type) evaluated. Adhesive type had a strong effect on VPD wood failure. The different performance levels of the three adhesives were useful in providing insights into how the VPD block shear wood failure test responds to significant changes in CLT manufacturing parameters. The pressure used in fabricating the CLT panels showed a strong effect on VPD wood failure as demonstrated for one of the adhesives. VPD wood failure decreased with decreasing pressure. Although dry shear wood failure was able to detect the effect of pressure, it failed to detect the effect of adhesive type on the bond quality of the CLT panels. These results provide support as to the effectiveness of the VPD block shear wood failure test in assessing the bond quality of CLT panels. The VPD conditioning treatment was able to identify poor bondline manufacturing conditions by observed changes in the mode of failure, which is also considered an indication of wood-adhesive bond durability. These results corroborate those obtained from the delamination test conducted in a previous study (Casilla et al. 2011). Along with the delamination test proposed in an earlier report, the VPD block shear wood failure can be used to assess the CLT bond quality. Although promising, more testing is needed to assess whether the VPD block shear wood failure can be used in lieu of the delamination test. The other properties studied (shear strength and dry wood failure), however, were not found to be useful in consistently assessing bond line manufacturing quality.
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Checking in CLT Panels: An Exploratory Study

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2625
Year of Publication
2011
Topic
Moisture
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Casilla, Romulo
Lum, Conroy
Pirvu, Ciprian
Wang, Brad
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2011
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Moisture
Keywords
Panels
Testing Methods
Surface Checks
Moisture Content
Gaps
Research Status
Complete
Summary
A study was conducted with the primary objective of gathering information for the development of a protocol for evaluating the surface quality of cross-laminated timber (CLT) products. The secondary objectives were to examine the effect of moisture content (MC) reduction on the development of surface checks and gaps, and find ways of minimizing the checking problems in CLT panels. The wood materials used for the CLT samples were rough-sawn Select grade Hem-Fir boards 25 x 152 mm (1 x 6 inches). Polyurethane was the adhesive used. The development of checks and gaps were evaluated after drying at two temperature levels at ambient relative humidity (RH). The checks and gaps, as a result of drying to 6% to 10% MC from an initial MC of 13%, occurred randomly depending upon the characteristics of the wood and the manner in which the outer laminas were laid up in the panel. Suggestions are made for minimizing checking and gap problems in CLT panels. The checks and gaps close when the panels are exposed to higher humidity. Guidelines were proposed for the development of a protocol for classifying CLT panels into appearance grades in terms of the severity of checks and gaps. The grades can be based on the estimated dimensions of the checks and gaps, their frequency, and the number of laminas in which they appear.
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Commentary on Closure Penetration Tests on CLT Fire Separations

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2602
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Fire
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Author
Lum, Conroy
Thomas, Tony
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Topic
Fire
Design and Systems
Keywords
Fire Resistance
Fire Tests
Panels
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Fire tests on a double egress fire door installed in two Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) wall panels were conducted. The purpose of the testing was to identify design consideration for detailing the interface between a 90 min. listed door assembly and a CLT wall with a 2-hr fire resistance. See also QAI Laboratories test reports: T895-6a Rev.2, and T895-6b Rev. 1
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Commentary on Service Penetration Tests on CLT Fire Separations

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2603
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Fire
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Lum, Conroy
Thomas, Tony
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Fire
Design and Systems
Keywords
Firestops
Pipe Penetrations
Performance
Fire Tests
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Fire tests on two unprotected 5-ply Cross Laminated Tmber (CLT) floors with pipe penetrations were conducted. The purpose of the testing was to evaluate concepts for detailing metallic and plastic pipe penetration firestops. Although the focus was on flame through performance, some temperature data was collected on insulated and uninsulated metallic pipes. See also QAI Laboratories test reports: T895-5a, and T895-5b Rev.3
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Considerations for Detailing the Closure Penetration and Gypsum Fire Separation Wall Interface

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2755
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Fire
Material
Other Materials
Application
Walls
Author
Lum, Conroy
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2015
Format
Report
Material
Other Materials
Application
Walls
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Gypsum
Fire Separation Walls
Fire Doors
Closure Penetration
Fire Performance
Fire Test
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Vertical gypsum fire separation walls that have fire-resistive ratings evaluated in accordance with a recognized standard are permitted for use in building construction. When approved doors are inserted in such walls, the details must be presented for consideration as an “alternative solution”. This guide is based on observations of two CAN/ULC S101 (ULC, 2007) tests on gypsum fire separation walls with S104 (ULC, 2010) approved closure penetrations. The guidance is intended to direct the designer’s attention to potential issues that might impact the performance of a closure penetration in a gypsum separation wall that use a thick wood-based sheathing (i.e. combustible) for carrying the weight of the fire door assembly. General guidance is provided on sizing the sheathing and the need for protecting the sheathing from fire, yet permitting the assembly to accommodate building movements in-service. The purpose of this guide is to recommend considerations when designing the interface between a fire door (closure penetration) in proprietary gypsum separation walls. These considerations form only part of the alternative solution that will need to be presented to the AHJ for approval. Although details are provided in Appendix VI to illustrate a possible solution, it is the responsibility of the designer to understand how the design is expected to perform. The guide discusses three scenarios to assist the designer in formulating an appropriate solution. These are performance under an extreme fire; performance under a limited fire; and performance under normal (non-fire) service conditions that may include high wind or high seismic event.
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Fire Performance of Firestops, Penetrations, and Fire Doors in Mass Timber Assemblies

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2061
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Dagenais, Christian
Lum, Conroy
Thomas, Tony
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Fire Resistance
Fire Stop
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
Presentation
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The North American Product Standard for Cross-Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue760
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Yeh, Borjen
Gagnon, Sylvain
Williamson, Tom
Pirvu, Ciprian
Lum, Conroy
Kretschmann, David
Publisher
Forest Products Society
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
International Building Code
North America
Standards
Research Status
Complete
Series
Wood Design Focus
Summary
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a prefabricated solid engineered wood product made of at least three orthogonally bonded layers of solid-sawn lumber or structural composite lumber that are laminated by gluing of longitudinal and transverse layers with structural adhesives to form a solid rectangular-shaped, straight, and plane timber intended for roof, floor, or wall applications. While this engineered wood product has been used in Europe for over 15 years, the production of CLT and design of CLT structural systems have just begun in North America. For the acceptance of new construction materials or systems in North America, such as CLT, a consensus-based product standard is essential to the designers and regulatory bodies. This paper describes and documents the background information and some key issues that were considered during the development of the ANSI/APA PRG 320 Standard for Performance-Rated Cross Laminated Timber. This standard was developed based on the consensus standard development process of APA-The Engineered Wood Association as a standards developer accredited by the American National Standards lnstitute (ANSI). The CLT stress classes incorporated in this product standard are also discussed. The ANSI/APA PRG 320 standard has been approved by the Structural Committee of the lnternational Code Council (lCC) for the 20'15 lnternational Building Code (lBC).
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Rebuilding the timber bridge supply chain

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3038
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
General Information
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Bridges and Spans
Author
Lum, Conroy
Mazloomi, Mohammad-Sadegh
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Report
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Bridges and Spans
Topic
General Information
Keywords
Timber Bridges
Glulam Bridge
Maintenance
Remote Monitoring
Inspection
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Although a much smaller market than housing, there is a long history of building bridges in wood. For many years, short span bridges particularly for resource roads or roads to access recreational areas were built in timber or glued-laminated timber. While some of these bridges still exist today, many have been replaced with concrete or concrete-on-steel solutions. Along with this decline in new timber bridges is the loss of expertise in timber bridge design and construction, and the adoption of new timber construction technology. Given the continuing efforts underway to develop the market for the use of mass timber in building construction, restoring the use of timber in bridges can complement this effort and help to provide more opportunities for the developing mass timber supply chain.
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A Survey on Modelling of Mass Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1916
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Design and Systems
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Chen, Zhiyong
Karacabeyli, Erol
Lum, Conroy
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Report
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Numerical Modelling
Research
Designers
Prediction
Software Tools
Empirical Equations
Design Challenges
Research Status
Complete
Summary
A survey was conducted under the "Renessaince in Wood Construction" project that was funded by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) under the Transformative Technologies Program to see information about numerical modelling on mass timber buildings. A questionnaire was sent to designers and researchers covering different performance attributes. The compiled information includes the available software packages and resources of empirical equations that are used by the designers and researchers for predicting the structural, fire, acoustic, and building envelope (energy and durability) performance of mass timber buildings, and the challenges that they are facing in using those tools. This report summarizes the input obtained from practicing designers and researchers who responded to this survey.
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9 records – page 1 of 1.