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20 records – page 1 of 2.

Bond Behavior Between Softwood Glulam and Epoxy Bonded-In Threaded Steel Rod

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue450
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Design and Systems
Mechanical Properties
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Ling, Zhibin
Liu, Weiqing
Lam, Frank
Yang, Huifeng
Lu, Weidong
Publisher
American Society of Civil Engineers
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Design and Systems
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Bonding Behavior
Failure Modes
Joints
Load Capacity
Softwood
Threaded Steel Rod
Pull-Pull
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering
Summary
This study aims to develop an improved understanding of the interfacial bond behavior of softwood glulam joints with bonded-in threaded steel rod. A total of 39 glulam joints with bonded-in single-threaded steel rods were tested to failure in the pull-pu...
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A Comparative Cradle-To-Gate Life Cycle Assessment of Mid-Rise Office Building Construction Alternatives: Laminated Timber or Reinforced Concrete

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue52
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Robertson, Adam
Lam, Frank
Cole, Raymond
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2012
Country of Publication
Switzerland
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Concrete
Embodied Carbon
Life-Cycle Assessment
Mid-Rise
National Building Code of Canada
NBCC
North America
Office Buildings
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
ISSN
2075-5309
Summary
The objective of this project was to quantify and compare the environmental impacts associated with alternative designs for a typical North American mid-rise office building. Two scenarios were considered; a traditional cast-in-place, reinforced concrete frame and a laminated timber hybrid design, which utilized engineered wood products (cross-laminated timber (CLT) and glulam). The boundary of the quantitative analysis was cradle-to-construction site gate and encompassed the structural support system and the building enclosure. Floor plans, elevations, material quantities, and structural loads associated with a five-storey concrete-framed building design were obtained from issued-for-construction drawings. A functionally equivalent, laminated timber hybrid design was conceived, based on Canadian Building Code requirements. Design values for locally produced CLT panels were established from in-house material testing. Primary data collected from a pilot-scale manufacturing facility was used to develop the life cycle inventory for CLT, whereas secondary sources were referenced for other construction materials. The TRACI characterization methodology was employed to translate inventory flows into impact indicators. The results indicated that the laminated timber building design offered a lower environmental impact in 10 of 11 assessment categories. The cradle-to-gate process energy was found to be nearly identical in both design scenarios (3.5 GJ/m2), whereas the cumulative embodied energy (feedstock plus process) of construction materials was estimated to be 8.2 and 4.6 GJ/m2 for the timber and concrete designs, respectively; which indicated an increased availability of readily accessible potential energy stored within the building materials of the timber alternative.
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Compression Perpendicular to Grain Behavior for the Design of a Prefabricated CLT Facade Horizontal Joint

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1540
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Connections
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Gasparri, Eugenia
Lam, Frank
Liu, Yingyang
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Connections
Design and Systems
Keywords
Envelope
Joints
Self-Tapping Screws
Finite Element Analysis
Prefabricated
Vertical Loads
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 1088-1098
Summary
The present work aims to define horizontal joint dimension tolerances for newly proposed prefabricated façade systems for applications in tall cross laminated timber (CLT) buildings based on the compression perpendicular to grain characteristics of the component. This requires a thorough understanding of structural settlement under vertical...
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Connection and Performance of Two-Way CLT Plates

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1482
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Connections
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Roofs
Author
Zhang, Chao
Lee, George
Lam, Frank
Organization
University of British Columbia
Year of Publication
2018
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Roofs
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Connections
Keywords
Two-Way
Bending Test
Modulus of Elasticity
Self-Tapping Screws
Glued-In-Rod
Steel Connectors
Steel Plates
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The two-way action of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) is often ignored in the design of CLT due to its complexity. But in some cases, for example, large span timber floor/roof, the benefit of taking the two-way action into account may be considerable since it is often deflection controlled in the design...
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Connection and Performance of Two-Way CLT Plates Phase II

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2086
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Connections
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Author
Zhang, Chao
Asselstine, Julian
Lee, George
Lam, Frank
Organization
University of British Columbia
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Connections
Keywords
Deflection
Two-Way
Bending
Finite Element Method
Model
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
In Phase I of Developing Large Span Two Way CLT Floor System (2017-18) we studied the performance of a steel plate connection system for the minor direction of CLT plates. The connected specimens had higher stiffness and strength compared to intact members under bending. In Phase II (2018-19) we designed and tested another connector based on...
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Connections for Stackable Heavy Timber Modules in Midrise to Tall Wood Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2087
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Connections
Design and Systems
Seismic
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Zhang, Chao
Lee, George
Lam, Frank
Organization
University of British Columbia
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Connections
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
Modular
Intra-module Connection
Inter-module Vertical Connection
Inter-module horizontal Connection
Mid-Rise
Tall Wood
Screws
Load Transfer
Steel Angle Bracket
Stiffness
Strength
Ductility
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
In Phase I (2018-19) of this project on Prefabricated Heavy Timber Modular Construction, three major types of connections used in a stackable modular building were studied: intramodule connection, inter-module vertical connection, and inter-module horizontal connection. The load requirement and major design criteria were identified...
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Development of Mass Timber Wall System Based on Nail Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2526
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Author
Zhang, Chao
Lee, George
Lam, Frank
Organization
Timber Engineering and Applied Mechanics (TEAM) Laboratory
Year of Publication
2020
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Shear
Stiffness
Fasteners
Fastener Type
Load
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This project studied the feasibility and performance of a mass timber wall system based on Nail Laminated Timber (NLT) for floor/wall applications, in order to quantify the effects of various design parameters. Thirteen 2.4 m × 2.4 m shear walls were manufactured and tested in this phase. Together with another five specimens tested before, a total eighteen shear wall specimens and ten configurations were investigated. The design variables included fastener type, sheathing thickness, number of sheathings, sheathing material, nailing pattern, wall opening, and lumber orientation. The NLT walls were made of SprucePine-Fir (SPF) No. 2 2×4 (38 mm × 89 mm) lumber and Oriented Strand Lumber (OSB) or plywood sheathing. They were tested under monotonic and reverse-cyclic loading protocols, in accordance with ASTM E564-06 (2018) and ASTM E2126-19, respectively. Compared to traditional wood stud walls, the best performing NLT based shear wall had 2.5 times the peak load and 2 times the stiffness at 0.5-1.5% drift, while retaining high ductility. The advantage of these NLT-based wall was even greater under reverse-cyclic loading due to the internal energy dissipation of NLT. The wall with ring nails had higher stiffness than the one with smooth nails. But the performance of ring nails deteriorated drastically under reverse-cyclic loading, leading to a considerably lower capacity. Changing the sheathing thickness from 11 mm to 15 mm improved the strength by 6% while having the same initial stiffness. Adding one more face of sheathing increased the peak load and stiffness by at least 50%. The wall was also very ductile as the load dropped less than 10% when the lateral displacement exceeded 150 mm. The difference created by sheathing material was not significant if they were of the same thickness. Reducing the nailing spacing by half led to a 40% increasing in the peak load and stiffness. Having an opening of 25% of the area at the center, the lateral capacity and stiffness reached 75% or more of the full wall. A simplified method to estimate the lateral resistance of this mass timber wall system was proposed. The estimate was close to the tested capacity and was on the conservative side. Recommendations for design and manufacturing the system were also presented.
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Duration-Of-Load Effect on the Rolling Shear Strength of Cross Laminated Timber: Duration-Of-Load Tests and Damage Accumulation Model

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue228
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Li, Yuan
Lam, Frank
Organization
University of British Columbia
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Duration of Load
Long-term
Mountain Pine Beetle
Rolling Shear Strength
Stiffness
Strength
Stress Distribution
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
In this study, the duration-of-load (DOL) effect on the rolling shear strength of cross laminated timber (CLT) was evaluated. A stress-based damage accumulation model is chosen to evaluate the DOL effect on the rolling shear strength of CLT. This model incorporates the established short-term rolling shear strength of material and predicts the time to failure under arbitrary loading history. The model was calibrated and verified based on the test data from low cycle trapezoidal fatigue tests (the damage accumulation tests). The long-term rolling shear behaviour of CLT can then be evaluated from this verified model. As the developed damage accumulation model is a probabilistic model, it can be incorporated into a time-reliability study. Therefore, a reliability assessment of the CLT products was performed considering short-term and snow loading cases. The reliability analysis results and factors reflecting the DOL effect on the rolling shear strength of CLT are compared and discussed. The results suggest that the DOL rolling shear strength adjustment factor for CLT is more severe than the general DOL adjustment factor for lumber; and, this difference should be considered in the introduction of CLT into the building codes for engineered wood design.
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Evaluating Rolling Shear Strength Properties of Cross Laminated Timber by Torsional Shear Tests and Bending Test

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue307
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Li, Minghao
Lam, Frank
Li, Yuan
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
New Zealand
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
SPF
Polyurethane
Rolling Shear Strength
Torsional Shear Test
Bending Test
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 10-14, 2014, Quebec City, Canada
Summary
This paper presents a study on evaluating rolling shear (RS) strength properties of cross laminated timber (CLT) using torsional shear tests and bending tests. The CLT plates were manufactured with Spruce-Pine-Fir boards and glued with polyurethane adhes...
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Experimental Study on Lateral Resistance of Reinforced Glued-Laminated Timber Post and Beam Structures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1648
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Seismic
Mechanical Properties
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Author
Xiong, Haibei
Liu, Yingyang
Lam, Frank
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Topic
Seismic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Cyclic Tests
Full Scale
Reinforcement
Lateral Resistance
Strength
Stiffness
Energy Dissipation
Self-Tapping Screws
FRP
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3471-3478
Summary
In order to study the lateral resistance of reinforced glued-laminated timber post and beam structures, nine cyclic tests on full-scale one-storey, one-bay timber post and beam construction specimens were carried out. Two reinforcement methods (wrapping fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) and implanting self-tapping screws) and two...
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20 records – page 1 of 2.