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Awareness, Perceptions and Willingness to Adopt Cross-Laminated Timber by the Architecture Community in the United States

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue506
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Laguarda Mallo, Maria Fernanda
Espinoza, Omar
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
Netherlands
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
US
Market Potential
Barriers to Adoption
Architects
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Cleaner Production
Summary
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a building system based on the use of massive, multi-layered solid wood panels. Although CLT as a construction system has been successful in Europe, only a handful of CLT projects have been built in the U.S. This manuscript presents the results from qualitative research, carried out with the objective of assessing the market potential and barriers to the adoption of CLT in the U.S. Insights from national and international experts were collected using semi-structured interviews. Topics included perceived benefits and disadvantages of CLT as a construction system, major barriers to its adoption in the U.S., and level of awareness about CLT among the architecture community.
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Awareness, Perceptions and Willingness to Adopt Cross-Laminated Timber in the United States

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1435
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Laguarda Mallo, Maria Fernanda
Organization
University of Minnesota
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
US
Awareness
Perceptions
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
One of the most recent innovations in Engineered Wood Products is Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT). The system is based on the use of multi-layered panels made from solid wood boards glued together, with the grain direction of successive layers placed at 90° angles. The cross-laminated configuration improves rigidity, dimensional stability, and mechanical properties. Structurally, CLT offers performance comparable to concrete or steel, with panels suitable for use as walls, floors, roofs, and other applications. While CLT as a construction material has been successful in Europe for the past 20 years, and more recently has made inroads in the Australian and Canadian markets, it is not yet readily available in the United States. To better understand the market potential for CLT in the U.S., this study aims to assess the level of awareness, perceptions and willingness to adopt the system by U.S. professionals. To achieve these objectives, (a) a series of 10 interviews were conducted to gather insights from national and international CLT experts; (b) a web-based survey to U.S. architecture firms was conducted to gather information about familiarity, perceptions, performance and likelihood to adopt the system in the near future; and (c) a multi-family residential building project was designed to explore the architectural possibilities of the material.This study identified that the use of wood, a natural and renewable material, was the main advantage of CLT. Another important benefit of CLT over traditional construction systems is the dramatically shorter on-site construction time needed. CLT is a prefabricated system, thus reducing labor requirements, on-site waste, and accidents, all of which translates into significant cost reductions. The most commonly cited disadvantages of CLT were its acoustic and vibration performance. From the study it was found that the level of awareness about CLT is low among U.S. architects. Building Code compatibility, availability in the domestic market and cost were mentioned as the main barriers to the implementation of the system in the U.S. Cross-Laminated Timber appears to be a cost-competitive alternative to concrete structures, especially for buildings over six stories high. Architects seem to be willing to adopt CLT for their near-future projects, especially for multi-family, commercial, and recreational buildings. Importantly, this willingness to adopt CLT was found to be positively correlated to the level of awareness with the system. Results show that diffusion of knowledge about CLT and the role of early adopters will be essential for the successful introduction of this new building technology into the U.S. market. The preliminary design created as part of this study allowed demonstrating the structural capabilities of CLT, by maximizing the spans between structural elements achieving open and fluid living spaces. CLT also enabled the design of wide terraces and the inclusion of window openings on outside walls without compromising the structural integrity of the CLT elements.
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Critical Factors in the Willingness to Adopt Innovative Wood-Based Building Materials in the Construction Industry: The Case of CLT

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1436
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Laguarda Mallo, Maria Fernanda
Organization
University of Minnesota
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
US
North American Market
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT), has increased the possibilities of building with wood. CLT consists of multi-layer panels, manufactured with lumber boards that are glued together, alternating the direction of their fibers for each layer. The successful introduction of CLT into the Canadian market indicates that there is potential for further market penetration in North America, and more specifically the United States. To increase the understanding of the market potential for CLT in the U.S., this dissertation aimed at identifying the critical factors influencing the willingness of U.S. construction professionals to adopt innovative wood-based construction materials, such as CLT. The overall objective was achieved by: (a) investigating the level of awareness, perceptions, and willingness to adopt CLT among structural engineers and construction firms; (b) developing a conceptual model including the most critical factors that influence the adoption of innovate wood-based construction materials among structural engineers and construction firms; and (c) identifying distinct market segments for CLT adoption in the U.S. The outcomes from this research help fill the gap in the knowledge about the market adoption process for innovative wood-based materials in the construction industry. This study also contributes to advance the development of the CLT industry in the U.S. by increasing the demand of wood-based construction materials and supporting the creation of employment in a sector of critical importance to the U.S. economy. Findings from this thesis provide useful information that will help these actors accelerate the adoption of CLT through well-designed educational programs, demonstration projects, marketing strategies, and policy incentives.
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Cross-Laminated Timber in the U.S.: Potential Adopter Perceptions

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue293
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Floors
Roofs
Author
Laguarda Mallo, Maria Fernanda
Espinoza, Omar
Publisher
Forest Products Society
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Floors
Roofs
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
US
Architects
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Wood Design Focus
Summary
In this study, European engineers were surveyed to learn about their current level of awareness of CLT, the major barriers to CLT adoption, and about the most pressing research needs to advance the use of CLT as a construction material. The study used a web-based survey with a convenience sample of 93 different kinds of timber and civil engineers and/or researchers, most of which belong to a European CLT research network. Results showed that participants thik that, in general, the level of awareness about CLT among developers, construction managers, engineers, architects, and construction managers, is low. The majority of perceived barriers for CLT adoption involved its building code compatibility and the availability of technical information. The most pressing research needs for CLT development, according to respondents, are in the areas of structural performance and connections, moistre performance, and market research.
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Cross-Laminated Timber: Status and Research Needs in Europe

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue321
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Espinoza, Omar
Trujillo, Vladimir
Laguarda Mallo, Maria Fernanda
Buehlmann, Urs
Publisher
North Carolina State University
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Europe
Awareness
Research Needs
Adoption
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
BioResources
Summary
In the 20 years since its invention in Europe, cross-laminated timber (CLT) has become a widely used construction material in parts of the old continent and has started to attract global attention. CLT possesses numerous advantages as a construction material, including its superior structural and environmental performance, as well as the speed and efficiency with which CLT buildings can be erected. In this study, European engineers were surveyed to learn about their current level of awareness of CLT, the major barriers to CLT adoption, and about the most pressing research needs to advance the use of CLT as a construction material. The study used a web-based survey with a convenience sample of 93 different kinds of timber and civil engineers and/or researchers, most of which belong to a European CLT research network. Results showed that participants think that, in general, the level of awareness about CLT among developers, construction managers, engineers, architects, and construction managers, is low. The majority of perceived barriers for CLT adoption involved its building code compatibility and the availability of technical information. The most pressing research needs for CLT development, according to respondents, are in the areas of structural performance and connections, moisture performance, and market research.
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Free
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Cross-Laminated Timber VS. Concrete/Steel: Cost Comparison Using a Case Study

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1641
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Market and Adoption
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Laguarda Mallo, Maria Fernanda
Espinoza, Omar
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Cost
Keywords
US
Architecture
Construction
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3223-3228
Summary
Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) is an innovative structural system based on the use of large-format, multilayered panels made from solid wood boards glued together, and layers at 90 degrees. This cross-laminated configuration translates into panels that are monolithic, stable, and experience minor shrinkage, which allows them to be used for the most diverse building applications, such as walls, floors and roofs. Developed in the early 1990 in Switzerland, as a way to reduce waste in sawmills, the system has been successful in Europe for the past 20 years, and more recently has made inroads into the Australian and North America markets. In the United States, the adoption of the system is still in its early stages. Recent research has shown that CLT could be cost-competitive as an alternative to concrete structures and for buildings over 6 stories high. The main goal of this study was to understand the market impediments to widespread adoption in the U.S. from an architecture firm’s point of view and compare the economic performance of CLT with that of traditional constructions systems, namely concrete and steel. A performing arts facility on the west coast of the US was evaluated as a case study. In order to accomplish this goal, a series of interviews with building professionals, as well as meetings with construction and estimating firms were conducted. Then an in depth analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the economic performance of the different construction systems in terms of cost of materials, labor, and speed of construction. This research addresses some of the key questions that must be answered if we are to understand the viability of a CLT market in the U.S.
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Free
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Identification of Research Areas to Advance the Adoption of Cross-Laminated Timber in North America

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue838
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Espinoza, Omar
Buehlmann, Urs
Laguarda Mallo, Maria Fernanda
Trujillo, Vladimir
Publisher
Society of Wood Science and Technology
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Research Needs
Adoption
North America
Awareness
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Bioproducts Business
Summary
Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) is emerging as a promising building system that could help revitalize a dwindling forest sector. However, little research has been conducted about CLT, particularly in the marketing realm. Our paper helps bridge this gap. Specifically, we aim to identify research areas that are important to successfully advance CLT as a building material in North America. Our findings, based on a survey of experts, suggest that the level of awareness about CLT among building professionals in general is low. However, architects are considered knowledgeable about the product. Experts consider that the most important barriers to the adoption of CLT are(a) misperceptions held by building industry professionals about wood and CLT, (b) compatibility of building codes with CLT, and (c) the availability of technical information about CLT as a construction system. In terms of most pressing research areas for advancing CLT, experts consider that it is important to shed more light on its seismic and fire performance, and also on proper connectors and fasteners used in CLT-based construction.
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Free
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Outlook for Cross-Laminated Timber in the United States

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue46
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Laguarda Mallo, Maria Fernanda
Espinoza, Omar
Publisher
North Carolina State University
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Adoption
Codes
Market
US
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
BioResources
Summary
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a building system based on the use of massive, multi-layered solid wood panels. Although CLT as a construction system has been successful in Europe, only a handful of CLT projects have been built in the U.S. This manuscript presents the results from qualitative research, carried out with the objective of assessing the market potential and barriers to the adoption of CLT in the U.S. Insights from national and international experts were collected using semi-structured interviews. Topics included perceived benefits and disadvantages of CLT as a construction system, major barriers to its adoption in the U.S., and level of awareness about CLT among the architecture community.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Status of Cross-Laminated Timber in North America

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1788
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Espinoza, Omar
Buehlmann, Urs
Laguarda Mallo, Maria Fernanda
Trujillo, Vladimir
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
North America
Research Needs
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 6042-6047
Summary
This study surveyed experts on Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) on their perspectives about research with the most positive impact on the advancement of CLT as building material in North America. Results from this study show that CLT experts in North America believe that architects are relatively well informed about CLT compared with...
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Free
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9 records – page 1 of 1.