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7 records – page 1 of 1.

Correct Temperature Measurements in Fire Exposed Wood

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2025
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)

Fire Safety of Bonded Structural Timber Elements

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1139
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Fire
Connections
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Klippel, Michael
Organization
ETH Zurich
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
Switzerland
Format
Thesis
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Connections
Keywords
Finger-Jointed
Adhesives
Fire Resistance
Europe
Zero-Strength Layer
Language
German
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The development of polyurethane (PUR) adhesives for engineered wood products started in Switzerland in 1985. Those adhesives satisfied the need for formaldehyde free adhesives, which is mainly attributed to health and environmental reasons. However, due to new requirements concerning the high temperature resistance of adhesives, especially in North America, newly developed adhesives are basically banned from the market, and adhesive manufacturers face a new barrier to approve their new adhesive technologies on the market. The work presented in this thesis clarifies the influence of adhesives on the fire design of glued-laminated timber beams. Additionally, clear scientifically based requirements are identified, which should be met by adhesives used in glued-laminated timber beams in case of fire. In this thesis, twelve different adhesives for both structural and non-structural applications were tested in large-scale fire tests on finger-jointed timber lamellas. Those fire tests indicated that structural adhesives certified according to current European testing standards exhibit sufficient strength in fire for the use in glued-laminated timber beams. Taking into account the crack pattern observed in the fire tests, no significant influence on the fire resistance was found between the studied structural adhesives. Therefore, it is not necessary to consider the influence of adhesives in the design of glued-laminated timber beams, given that the adhesive is approved according to current European testing standards.
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Fire Tests on Finger-Jointed Timber Boards

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue170
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Fire
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Klippel, Michael
Frangi, Andrea
Organization
ETH Zurich
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
Switzerland
Format
Report
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Adhesives
Strength
Finger-joint
Temperature
Fire Resistance
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This testing report summarises the experimental investigations on finger-jointed timber speci- mens, glued with different types of adhesives, loaded in tension and exposed to standard ISO-fire. The tests were performed as part of the project entitled “Fire safety of bonded structural timber elements” in the frame of a CTI-project (Commission for Technology and Innovation). The extensive testing programme on finger-jointed timber specimens was performed in cooperation with industry partners at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich). The main aim of this research project is to clarify if the currently used design model for the fire re- sistance of bonded structural timber elements, such as glued-laminated timber, should consider the behaviour of adhesives at elevated temperatures. In this experimental study, different adhesives available on the market from adhesive man- ufacturer from Europe (such as Casco AG, Dynea AG, Jowat AG, Türmerleim AG, Purbond AG) were tested. Adhesives being used for structural applications as well as adhesives not certified according to current European testing standards for the use in structural applications were tested. The fire performance of 12 different adhesives - of type 1C PUR, MUF, PRF, EPI, PVAc, UF - were tested in a finger-jointed connection for cross-sections with a width of 80, 140 and 200 mm. In total, 49 fire tests were performed under ISO-fire exposure at the Swiss Federal Labora- tories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA) in Duebendorf/ Switzerland. Two tests were conducted with specimens equipped with thermocouples to determine the temperature distribu- tion along the cross-section width. In the other tests, different parameters and their influence on the fire resistance were varied, such as the adhesive in the finger joint, the width of the specimen, the load level and the type of fire exposure on the testing lamella. The tests were performed in two test series in March and April, 2011 as well as in July and August, 2012. The second test series was extended by five additional tests with higher graded timber in August 2013. The main result from the first test series can be concluded as follows: The adhesives tested (2 x PUR, 1 x MUF) fulfil current approval criteria according to EN 301 (2013c) and EN 15425 (2008) for the use in load-bearing timber components in Europe. The adhesives fulfil at least the A7 test at 70 ° C according to EN 302-1 (2013a). Taking into account the failure pattern, no significant difference was observed between these adhesives. It could be shown that the higher loss of strength for some adhesives tested at elevated temperature does not necessarily lead to the same loss of strength in fire, since defects like knots may be dominant - depending on the strength class (grading). The main result from the second test series can be concluded as follows: No substantial difference was obtained for finger-jointed specimens glued with PRF and other structural ad- hesives. The PUR adhesive fulfilling the ASTM D7247 (2007) standard test at temperatures higher than 200 C did not reach a higher fire resistance than PUR adhesives which do not fulfil this standard. It was found that adhesives, which are used in structural timber members such as glued-laminated timber beams, need sufficient strength at lower temperatures than 200 C. iv This is especially explained by the steep temperature gradient typical for timber members such as glued-laminated timber. In addition to the fire tests, about 120 tensile tests on finger-jointed lamellas were performed at normal temperature. These lamellas were produced with the same types of adhesives as studied in the fire tests. The results of the whole investigation are summarised in this test report
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Fire Tests on Loaded Cross-Laminated Timber Wall and Floor Elements

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue254
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Author
Klippel, Michael
Leyder, Claude
Frangi, Andrea
Fontana, Mario
Publisher
International Association For Fire Safety Science
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
Netherlands
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Charring Rate
Canada
Panels
Fire Resistance
Language
English
Conference
Fire Safety Science International Symposium
Research Status
Complete
Notes
February 9-14, 2014, Christchurch, New Zealand
Summary
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels are relatively new engineered wood products that can be used as load bearing walls, floors and roof elements in innovative and high quality modern timber structures. The fire behavior of cross-laminated timber panels requires careful evaluation to allow the expansion of CLT elements usage in buildings. A University of British Columbia study has been conducted at the Trees and Timber Institute CNR-IVALSA in San Michele all’Adige, Italy to experimentally evaluate the fire performance of Canadian CLT panels. In total, ten loaded fire tests were performed using standard fire curves (ULC/ASTM and ISO) to study the influence of different cross-section layups on the fire resistance of floor and wall elements and to investigate the influence of different anchors on the fire behavior of wall elements. This paper presents the main results of the experimental analyses and discusses in particular the charring rate, one of the main parameters in fire design.
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Free
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Fire Tests on Timber-Concrete Composite Slabs Using Beech Laminated Veneer Lumber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1677
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Fire
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Author
Klippel, Michael
Boccadoro, Lorenzo
Klingsch, Eike
Frangi, Andrea
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Large Scale
Fire Resistance
Fire Test
Beech
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3942-3949
Summary
At the Institute of Structural Engineering (IBK) of ETH Zurich, the fire behaviour of timber-concrete composite slabs made with beech laminated veneer lumber (LVL) (BauBuche) was investigated. This composite slab is made of a thin plate (depth: 40 mm or 80 mm) using beech LVL and a concrete layer on top (depth: 160 mm or 120 mm). The beech plate acts both as formwork and as tensile reinforcement. This innovative slab system was implemented for the first time in the ETH House of Natural Resources at ETH Zurich. This paper summarizes the results of two largescale fire tests on loaded timber-concrete composite slabs exposed to standard ISO fire. Both fire tests show that the timber-concrete composite slab using beech LVL reaches sufficient fire resistance and integrity for 90 min and 60 min, respectively.
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Life Cycle Assessment of a Post-Tensioned Timber Frame in Comparison to a Reinforced Concrete Frame for Tall Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue412
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Frames
Author
Cattarinussi, Laurent
Hofstetter, Kathrin
Ryffel, Rinaldo
Zumstein, K.
Ioannidou, Dimitra
Klippel, Michael
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Switzerland
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Frames
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Concrete
Sustainability
Life-Cycle Assessment
Post-Tensioned
Greenhouse Gases
Costs
Construction Time
Language
English
Conference
SBE Regional Conference
Research Status
Complete
Notes
June 15-17, 2016, Zurich, Switzerland
Summary
Consuming over 40% of total primary energy, the built environment is in the centre of worldwide strategies and measures towards a more sustainable future. To provide resilient solutions, a simple optimisation of individual technologies will not be sufficient. In contrast, whole system thinking reveals and exploits connections between parts. Each system interacts with others on different scales (materials, components, buildings, cities) and domains (ecology, economy and social). Whole-system designers optimize the performance of such systems by understanding interconnections and identifying synergies. The more complete the design integration, the better the result. In this book, the reader will find the proceedings of the 2016 Sustainable Built Environment (SBE) Regional Conference in Zurich. Papers have been written by academics and practitioners from all continents to bring forth the latest understanding on systems thinking in the built environment.
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Free
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Structural Fire Design-Statement on the Design of Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT)

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2398
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Fire
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Schmid, Joachim
Werther, Norman
Klippel, Michael
Frangi, Andrea
Publisher
Juniper Publishers
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Design and Systems
Keywords
Fire Safe Design
Fire Characteristics
Building Codes
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Civil Engineering Research Journal
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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7 records – page 1 of 1.