The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the properties of glued laminated beams made in diverse configurations of timber quality classes, reinforced using a new technique that is cheaper and easy to apply. The aim of the experimental investigations was to enhance reinforcement effectiveness and rigidity of glued laminated beams. The tests consisted of four-point bending of large-scale specimens reinforced with basalt fibres (BFRP). The tests were meant to obtain images of failure, the load–displacement relation and load carrying capacity of basalt fibres depending on the reinforcement ratio. The tests, which concerned low and average quality timber beams, were conducted in a few stages. The aim of the study was to popularize and increase the use of low-quality timber harvested from reafforested areas for structural applications. In the study, theoretical and numerical analysis was carried out for reinforced and unreinforced elements in various configurations of wood quality classes. The aim was to compare the results with the findings of experimental tests. Based on the tests, it was found that the load carrying capacity of beams reinforced with basalt fibre was higher by, respectively, 13% and 20% than that of reference beams, while their rigidity improved by, respectively, 9.99% and 17.13%. The experimental tests confirmed that basalt fibres are an effective structural reinforcement of structural timber with reduced mechanical properties.
The paper presents the results of experimental research on unstrengthened and strengthened laminated veneer beams subjected to 4-point bending. Aramid, glass and carbon sheets with high tensile strength (HS) and ultra-high modulus of elasticity (UHM) glued to external surfaces with an epoxy resin adhesive were used as reinforcement. Two reinforcement layouts were used: (1) sheets glued along the bottom surface and (2) sheets glued to the bottom and side surfaces. Based on the test results, the flexural strength, flexural ductility and stiffness were estimated. Compared to the reference beams, the maximum bending moment was higher by 15%, 20%, 30% and by 16%, 22% and 35% for the Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polymers (AFRP), Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymers (GFRP) and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) HS sheets, respectively. There was no significant increase in the flexural bending capacity for beams reinforced with UHM CFRP sheets. Similar values of bending ductility indices based on deflection and energy absorption were obtained. Higher increases in ductility were observed for AFRP, GFRP and CFRP HS sheets in “U” reinforcement layout. The average increase in bending stiffness coefficient ranged from 8% for AFRP sheets to 33% for UHM CFRP sheets compared to the reference beams.
The topic of the article is the analysis of the static work of unreinforced and reinforced with composite material timber beams under bending tests. The results of the experimental tests and a brief outline of the characteristics of the internal reinforcement of wood structures are presented. Experimental tests were performed on full-scale beams made of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) with nominal dimensions of 45 × 200 × 3400 mm. Two strips of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) reinforcement were glued into rectangular grooves in the component bottom with two-component epoxy resin (0.62% reinforcement percentage). The reinforcement mainly affected the enhancement of the maximum bending moment values evaluated at the points of application as having concentrated forces of 32% and 24% in comparison to the unreinforced elements. Increases of 11% and 7% in the global modulus of elasticity in the bending and stiffness coefficients were achieved, respectively. The failure of the reference beams was caused by exceeding the tensile strength of the LVL. The reinforced elements were characterized by a greater variation in failure mode, resulting from tension, compression or lateral torsional buckling. The strain profile reading showed a higher utilization of the compression characteristic of veneer in specimens reinforced with carbon laminates.
This paper presents the results of experimental research on full-size laminated veneer lumber (LVL) beams unreinforced and reinforced with CFRP sheets. The nominal dimensions of the tested beams were 45 mm × 200 mm × 3400 mm. The beams were reinforced using the so-called U-type reinforcement in three configurations, differing from each other in the thickness of the reinforcement and the side surface coverage. An epoxy resin adhesive was used to bond all the components together. A four-point static bending test was performed according to the guidelines in the relevant European standards. The effectiveness of the reinforcement increased with the level of coverage of the side surface and the level of reinforcement. The average increases of bending resistance were 42%, 51% and 58% for configurations B, C and D, respectively. The average value of bending stiffness increased for the beams of series B, C and D by 15%, 31% and 43%, respectively. Their failure mode changed from brittle fracture initiated in the tensile zone for unreinforced beams to more ductile fracture, initiated in the compression zone. The influence of the coverage of the side surface by the CFRP sheet and reinforcement ratio on the mechanism of failure and effectiveness of strengthening was studied in the article.
Wooden construction constitutes a specific branch of the building industry that focuses on high-quality materials, a developed sense of aesthetics connected with comfort and functionality, and concern for ecology and durability. This type of construction has a positive effect on human quality of life. This article focuses on modular frame construction and technological aspects of wooden houses built according to Canadian or Scandinavian technologies. Taking weather conditions of Scandinavian countries into consideration, timber is a popular building material, which, when preserving certain parameters such as density of rings, may provide durability of a modular wooden building even up to 200–300 years. This article is a review and presents the possibility of producing frame buildings in Europe (Poland) in accordance with the applicable standards, including a heat transfer coefficient U = 2 [W/(m²·K]. In Poland, wooden frame buildings can be traced back to the 14th century. Wooden frame buildings and modular wooden frame buildings were produced even earlier in Norway. Wooden construction continued in the mid-1800s in various forms (with wooden filling and/or panels). In the mid-1900s (1941), certain dimensioning became regulated by law, which then applied to different types of insulation fillings. Prefabricated modular wood frame houses were common in the 1960s.