Cross laminated timber (CLT) is a new engineered wood product that has experienced rapid growth and market acceptance for residential and non-residential construction in western and central Europe. Potential exists for rapid market adoption in North America if manufacturing capacities are developed...
Sustainable solutions to building construction can help improve material utilization efficiency while providing economic development. This paper focuses on the development of low-grade hardwood CLT made with Yellow-Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) as an exemplar species. Analysis programs developed at Virginia Tech (CLT-VT) investigate whether design methods developed for softwood species are suitable for use with the mechanical properties of hardwoods to predict structural behaviour of CLT panels. The CLT-VT programs will include the analytical design methods defined in the CLT Handbook for floor/roof and wall systems, and beams/lintels . The study will assist in further development of a sustainable building product while adding value to under-utilized low-grade hardwood lumber and creating a road map for the production of CLT materials from most every domestic wood species available in the United States.
This study examines if Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) design methods approved for softwood species can be used with hardwood species, specifically low-grade hardwoods. Analytical predictions from researcher-generated computer programs will be compared to data from experimental evaluations of hardwood CLT. Successful completion will allow for an under-utilized timber resource to be incorporated into CLT production.
The purpose of this paper was to examine whether CLT made from fast growing hardwood species can provide sufficient mechanical performance need to be used in structural engineering applications. Yellow-poplar CLT was tested experimentally for stiffness and strength in five-point bending and four-point bending tests, respectively as well as resistance to shear by compression lading and resistance to delamination and the results were compared with American National Standard Institute/APA-The Engineered Wood Association (ANSI/APA) PRG 320-Standard for Performance Rated Cross-Laminated Timber and previous research. Bending stiffness, bending strength and resistance to delamination exceeded the required value in the standard, while wood failure in resistance to shear by compression loading was less than the required value. Shear strength of the yellow-poplar CLT was also greater than CLT produced from softwood species tested in previous research. Acceptable mechanical performance of yellow-poplar CLT confirmed in this research, could be a start point of using hardwood species in CLT structural design.