Cross laminated timber (CLT) is a new engineered wood product that has experienced rapid growth and market acceptance for residential and non-residential construction in western and central Europe. Potential exists for rapid market adoption in North America if manufacturing capacities are developed. Dissemination of information on CLT North America markets, manufacturing capabilities, and product standards are the next key steps for facilitating investment in CLT manufacturing capacities in North America. This paper compares standards for CLT between Europe and North America.
Development of cross laminated timber (CLT) manufacturing facilities will require an optimization of manufacturing parameters to ensure efficient production. This study examined the effects of press pressure, press time and the addition of water to bond surfaces for a CLT panel composed of southern pine lumber and polyurethane adhesive. Evaluation of the CLT panels used the five-point bending test for bending stiffness, bending strength and shear stiffness in addition to measuring the resistance to shear by compression loading. The shear strength and percent wood failure values obtained from the resistance to shear by compression loading. The optimal combination of manufacturing parameters studied was 100% press pressure and a press time of 80% of the manufacturer recommendations. The addition of water to the bondline surfaces was deemed unnecessary for CLT materials conforming to the PRG-320 standard. Comparison of mechanical properties with Grade V3 showed higher bending strength and shear stiffness values.
The purpose of this paper was to examine whether CLT made from fast growing hardwood species can provide sufficient mechanical performance need to be used in structural engineering applications. Yellow-poplar CLT was tested experimentally for stiffness and strength in five-point bending and four-point bending tests, respectively as well as resistance to shear by compression lading and resistance to delamination and the results were compared with American National Standard Institute/APA-The Engineered Wood Association (ANSI/APA) PRG 320-Standard for Performance Rated Cross-Laminated Timber and previous research. Bending stiffness, bending strength and resistance to delamination exceeded the required value in the standard, while wood failure in resistance to shear by compression loading was less than the required value. Shear strength of the yellow-poplar CLT was also greater than CLT produced from softwood species tested in previous research. Acceptable mechanical performance of yellow-poplar CLT confirmed in this research, could be a start point of using hardwood species in CLT structural design.