Cross laminated timber (CLT) is a new engineered wood product that has experienced rapid growth and market acceptance for residential and non-residential construction in western and central Europe. Potential exists for rapid market adoption in North America if manufacturing capacities are developed. Dissemination of information on CLT North America markets, manufacturing capabilities, and product standards are the next key steps for facilitating investment in CLT manufacturing capacities in North America. This paper compares standards for CLT between Europe and North America.
The current interest and growth of cross laminated timber (CLT) products has spurred interest in the manufacture of CLTs in the United States. The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of CLT materials from southern pine lumber commonly available in Virginia. A 5-layer CLT panel has been constructed using No. 2 southern pine lumber. Evaluation of mechanical properties, fire performance and acoustical performance were conducted. Results of these evaluations can guide the development and acceptance of CLT products in the International Building Code.
The purpose of this paper was to examine whether CLT made from fast growing hardwood species can provide sufficient mechanical performance need to be used in structural engineering applications. Yellow-poplar CLT was tested experimentally for stiffness and strength in five-point bending and four-point bending tests, respectively as well as resistance to shear by compression lading and resistance to delamination and the results were compared with American National Standard Institute/APA-The Engineered Wood Association (ANSI/APA) PRG 320-Standard for Performance Rated Cross-Laminated Timber and previous research. Bending stiffness, bending strength and resistance to delamination exceeded the required value in the standard, while wood failure in resistance to shear by compression loading was less than the required value. Shear strength of the yellow-poplar CLT was also greater than CLT produced from softwood species tested in previous research. Acceptable mechanical performance of yellow-poplar CLT confirmed in this research, could be a start point of using hardwood species in CLT structural design.
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a novel wood building material suitable for floor, roof, and wall assemblies in low and mid- rise construction as an alternative to concrete and steel. CLTs are considered to provide good seismic resistance, fast erection times, carbon sequestration, and a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions over other construction materials. Southern pine is an abundant forest resource, yet has not been commercially used for CLT manufacturing.
The purpose of this paper was to measure the bending and shear properties of CLT material fabricated using southern pine lumber compared to the ANSI/APA PRG-320 product standard. Bending strength, bending stiffness, shear strength, resistance to shear by compression loading strength, and resistance to delamination were measured according to ANSI/APA PRG-320, and test results were compared to the V3 grade values. Bending tests were conducted on jointed beams due to test length requirements. Bending strength, bending stiffness, and wood failure in resistance to shear by compression loading tests exceeded the published values for the V3 grade, while resistance to delamination did not meet the established criteria. The resistance to delamination results may have been effected by the uncontrolled moisture content of the lumber during fabrication of the CLTs. The application of glued laminated lumber standards to CLT products requires clarification in the orientation of loading directions for the resistance to shear by compression loading test and the measurement of all four sides of the resistance to delamination specimens. Increased scrutiny of moisture content quality control is highly encouraged for the production of CLTs.