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Comparisons of the Production Standards for Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) in Europe versus USA

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1705
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Young, Timothy
Barbu, Marius
Hindman, Daniel
Weissensteiner, Josef
Tudor, Eugenia
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Europe
North America
Manufacturing
Standards
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 4412-4419
Summary
Cross laminated timber (CLT) is a new engineered wood product that has experienced rapid growth and market acceptance for residential and non-residential construction in western and central Europe. Potential exists for rapid market adoption in North America if manufacturing capacities are developed...
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Effect of Manufacturing Parameters on Mechanical Properties of Southern Yellow Pine Cross Laminated Timbers

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1314
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Sharifnia, Houri
Hindman, Daniel
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
Netherlands
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Manufacturing
Southern Yellow Pine
Polyurethane
Five Point Bending Test
Bending Stiffness
Bending Strength
Shear Stiffness
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Construction and Building Materials
Summary
Development of cross laminated timber (CLT) manufacturing facilities will require an optimization of manufacturing parameters to ensure efficient production. This study examined the effects of press pressure, press time and the addition of water to bond surfaces for a CLT panel composed of southern pine lumber and polyurethane adhesive. Evaluation of the CLT panels used the five-point bending test for bending stiffness, bending strength and shear stiffness in addition to measuring the resistance to shear by compression loading. The shear strength and percent wood failure values obtained from the resistance to shear by compression loading. The optimal combination of manufacturing parameters studied was 100% press pressure and a press time of 80% of the manufacturer recommendations. The addition of water to the bondline surfaces was deemed unnecessary for CLT materials conforming to the PRG-320 standard. Comparison of mechanical properties with Grade V3 showed higher bending strength and shear stiffness values.
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Mechanical Properties of Southern Pine Cross-Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue680
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Moisture
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Author
Hindman, Daniel
Bouldin, John
Publisher
American Society of Civil Engineers
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Moisture
Keywords
Bending Strength
Bending Stiffness
Shear Strength
Delamination
Length
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering
Summary
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a novel wood building material suitable for floor, roof, and wall assemblies in low and mid- rise construction as an alternative to concrete and steel. CLTs are considered to provide good seismic resistance, fast erection times, carbon sequestration, and a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions over other construction materials. Southern pine is an abundant forest resource, yet has not been commercially used for CLT manufacturing. The purpose of this paper was to measure the bending and shear properties of CLT material fabricated using southern pine lumber compared to the ANSI/APA PRG-320 product standard. Bending strength, bending stiffness, shear strength, resistance to shear by compression loading strength, and resistance to delamination were measured according to ANSI/APA PRG-320, and test results were compared to the V3 grade values. Bending tests were conducted on jointed beams due to test length requirements. Bending strength, bending stiffness, and wood failure in resistance to shear by compression loading tests exceeded the published values for the V3 grade, while resistance to delamination did not meet the established criteria. The resistance to delamination results may have been effected by the uncontrolled moisture content of the lumber during fabrication of the CLTs. The application of glued laminated lumber standards to CLT products requires clarification in the orientation of loading directions for the resistance to shear by compression loading test and the measurement of all four sides of the resistance to delamination specimens. Increased scrutiny of moisture content quality control is highly encouraged for the production of CLTs.
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