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8 records – page 1 of 1.

Ability of Finger-Jointed Lumber to Maintain Load at Elevated Temperatures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1832
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Fire
Material
Other Materials
Author
Rammer, Douglas
Zelinka, Samuel
Hasburgh, Laura
Craft, Steven
Publisher
Forest Products Laboratory
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Journal Article
Material
Other Materials
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Small Scale
Full Scale
Bending Test
Melamine Formaldehyde
Phenol-Resorcinol Formaldehyde
Creep
Polyurethane
Polyvinyl Acetate
Temperature
Durability
Research Status
Complete
Series
Wood and Fiber Science. 50(1): 44-54.
Summary
This article presents a test method that was developed to screen adhesive formulations for finger-jointed lumber. The goal was to develop a small-scale test that could be used to predict whether an adhesive would pass a full-scale ASTM E119 wall assembly test. The method involved loading a 38-mm square finger-jointed sample in a four-point bending test inside of an oven with a target sample temperature of 204°C. The deformation (creep) was examined as a function of time. It was found that samples fingerjointed with melamine formaldehyde and phenol resorcinol formaldehyde adhesives had the same creep behavior as solid wood. One-component polyurethane and polyvinyl acetate adhesives could not maintain the load at the target temperature measured middepth of the sample, and several different types of creep behavior were observed before failure. This method showed that the creep performance of the onecomponent adhesives may be quite different than the performance from short-term load deformation curves collected at high temperatures. The importance of creep performance of adhesives in the fire resistance of engineered wood is discussed.
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Compartment Fire Testing of a Two-Story Mass Timber Building

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1825
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Fire
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Zelinka, Samuel
Hasburgh, Laura
Bourne, Keith
Tucholski, David
Ouellette, Jason
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Report
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Tall Wood
Gypsum
Mass Timber
Fire Performance
Compartment Fire Test
Sprinklers
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Five full-scale fire experiments were conducted to observe the performance of a two-level apartment-style structure constructed of mass timber. Each level consisted of a one bedroom apartment, an L-shaped corridor, and a stairwell connecting the two levels. One of the primary variables considered in this test series was the amount and location of exposed mass timber. The amount of mass timber surface area protected by gypsum wallboard ranged from 100% to no protection. For each experiment, the fuel load was identical and the fire was initiated in a base cabinet in the kitchen. In the first three experiments, the fire reached flashover conditions, and subsequently underwent a cooling phase as the fuel load from combustible contents was consumed. The first three experiments were carried out for a duration of up to 4 h. In the fourth experiment, automatic fire sprinklers were installed. Sprinklers suppressed the fire automatically. In the fifth experiment, the activation of the automatic fire sprinklers was delayed by approximately 20 minutes beyond the sprinkler activation time in the fourth experiment to simulate responding fire service charging a failed sprinkler water system. A variety of instrumentation was used during the experiments, including thermocouples, bidirectional probes, optical density meters, heat flux transducers, directional flame thermometers, gas analyzers, a fire products collector, and residential smoke alarms. In addition, the experiments were documented with digital still photography, video cameras, and a thermal imaging camera. The experiments were conducted in the large burn room of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Fire Research Laboratory located in Beltsville, Maryland, USA. This report provides details on how each experiment was set up, how the experiments were conducted, and the instrumentation used to collect the data. A brief summary of the test results is also included. Detailed results and full data for each test are included in separate appendices.
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Effect of Adhesives and Ply Configuration on the Fire Performance of Southern Pine Cross-Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1682
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Connections
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Hasburgh, Laura
Bourne, Keith
Peralta, Perry
Mitchell, Phil
Schiff, Scott
Pang, Weichiang
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Connections
Fire
Keywords
Southern Pine
Adhesives
Ply Configuration
Fire Performance
Melamine Formaldehyde
Phenol-Resorcinol Formaldehyde
Polyurethane
Emulsion Polymer Isocyanate
Delamination
Char Rate
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 4031-4038
Summary
Thirteen Southern pine cross-laminated timber panels were tested in the intermediate scale horizontal furnace at the Forest Products Laboratory to determine the effects different adhesives and ply configuration had on fire performance. Four different adhesives were tested: melamine formaldehyde (MF), phenol resorcinol formaldehyde (PRF), polyurethane reactive (PUR), and emulsion polymer isocyanate (EPI). There were two ply configurations: Long-Cross-Long (LCL) or Long-Long-Cross (LLC) where “long” indicates the wood was parallel to the longer edge of the panel. The MF and the PRF prevented delamination and associated problems while the LLC configuration resulted in uneven charring patterns.
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Fire Behavior Of Next Generation Of Cross-Laminated Timber: CLT Manufactured With SCL And Hardwood

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue371
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Grandmont, Jean-Frédéric
Hasburgh, Laura
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Aspen
Fire Behaviour
Charring Rate
ANSI/APA PRG-320
Manufacturing Parameters
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The objective of this study is to evaluate the fire behavior of CLT manufactured with different types of SCL or lumber boards, namely with laminated veneer lumber (LVL), laminated strand lumber (LSL) and Trembling Aspen. The fire test data is also compared to those of CLT manufactured in accordance with ANSI/APA PRG-320 using solid-sawn lumber grades. More specifically, the study aims at evaluating the charring rates of this new generation of CLT panels as well as the impact of their manufacturing parameters.
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Fire Performance of Mass-Timber Encapsulation Methods and the Effect of Encapsulation on Char Rate of Cross-Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue758
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Hasburgh, Laura
Bourne, Keith
Dagenais, Christian
Ranger, Lindsay
Roy-Poirier, Audrey
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Charring Rate
Encapsulation
Fire Resistance
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria
Summary
Twenty-three (23) cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels were exposed to a standard fire at an intermediate scale. This paper discusses several encapsulation methods used to increase the fire resistance of those panels, with emphasis on encapsulation times and the impact of encapsulation on the charring rate of CLTs. The encapsulation methods used included Type X gypsum board, intumescent coating, rock fibre insulation and spray applied fire-resistant materials (SFRM). The results suggest that encapsulation methods can significantly reduce wood charring rates in addition to delaying the time at which wood elements become involved in fire.
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Full-Scale Fire Tests of a Two-Story Cross-Laminated Timber Structure

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1826
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Hasburgh, Laura
Zelinka, Samuel
Bourne, Keith
Tucholski, David
Ouellette, Jason
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Compartment Fire Test
Mass Timber
Full-Scale Fire Test
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 20-23, 2018, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Summary
There is a current trend towards mid- and high-rise mass timber buildings. With this trend, there is a research need to develop a comparison between mass timber compartment fires and non-combustible compartment fires. In an effort to address the knowledge gaps in the fire performance of cross-laminated timber compartments, a full-scale fire test series was developed. The fire test series included five tests with varying levels of exposed cross-laminated timber on a two story cross-laminated timber structure. Here we present a detailed summary of the fire test series, instrumentation plan, and an overview of the results.
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Free
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Full-Scale Fire Tests of a Two-Story Cross-Laminated Timber Structure

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2068
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Hasburgh, Laura
Zelinka, Samuel
Bourne, Keith
Tucholski, David
Ouellette, Jason
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Full-Scale
Fire Tests
Fire Performance
Compartment Fire Test
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Summary
There is a current trend towards mid- and high-rise mass timber buildings. With this trend, there is a research need to develop a comparison between mass timber compartment fires and non-combustible compartment fires. In an effort to address the knowledge gaps in the fire performance of cross-laminated timber compartments, a full-scale fire test series was developed. The fire test series included five tests with varying levels of exposed cross-laminated timber on a two story cross-laminated timber structure. Here we present a detailed summary of the fire test series, instrumentation plan, and an overview of the results.
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Free
Resource Link
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Performance of Wood Adhesive for Cross Laminated Timber Under Elevated Temperatures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1831
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Zelinka, Samuel
Rammer, Douglas
Hasburgh, Laura
Bleche, Nathan
Pei, Shiling
Sullivan, Kenneth
Ottum, Noah
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Fire
Keywords
Panels
Structural Performance
Fire
Safety
Serviceability
Mechanical Properties
Tensile Strength
Shear Strength
Temperature
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 20-23, 2018 Seoal, Republic of Korea
Summary
The increasing use of cross laminated timber (CLT) panels in large multi-story buildings has highlighted the structural performance of CLT in fire as a critical issue concerning life safety and serviceability. It is well-known that wood material strength decreases when exposed to elevated temperature for an extended period of time. For CLT panels, another level of complexity lies in the mechanical properties of the glued interface under high temperature. In this study, the tensile strength of typical North American wood species and shear strength of the glued interface of commonly used adhesives in CLT production were evaluated at different levels of elevated temperatures. The researchers systematically tested glue interface and wood samples in a controlled temperature chamber and obtained the load-deformation curves of the specimens until failure was observed. A total of five temperature levels were tested, with three wood species and four wood adhesive types. The glued interface strength was also compared to wood material strength itself under different temperatures. For each test, multiple samples were tested to ensure statistical significance of the results. The ultimate objective of this study is to develop a mechanistic model for CLT panels that can take into account the effect of temperature. In this paper, only the design, execution, and results from the elevated temperature tests are presented.
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8 records – page 1 of 1.