High strength, low weight, corrosion resistance, and electromagnetic neutrality make fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) a suitable candidate in many structural applications, including rehabilitation and strengthening as well as the development of new wood members. Advanced forms of reinforced wood construction can enable contemporary wood structures to play an even greater role in today's construction."In this work, the writers establish a novel technique for reinforcing wood members involving external bonding of pretensioned FRP sheets on their tension zones. An analytical model for the maximum initial pretension is verified with tests on carbon/epoxy-prestressed wood beams. Additional studies, both analytical and experimental of the flexural behavior of wood beams reinforced with prestressed carbon/epoxy FRP sheets demonstrate the superior performance of the hybrid system and emphasize its favorable strength, stiffness, and ductility characteristics. Finally, a methodology is described for the selection of composite material dimensions and initial prestressing to maximize structural performance.
This paper gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied in the analysis of wood. The added bibliography at the end of this article contains 300 references to papers and conference proceedings on the subject that were published between 1995 and 2004. The following topics are included: Wood as a construction material—material and mechanical properties; wood joining and fastening; fracture mechanics problems; drying process, thermal properties; other topics. Wood products and structures—lumber; glulam, panels, wood composites; trusses and frames; floors, roofs; bridges; other products/structures.
Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE) has been developed mainly for the region of high seismicity for the last three decades. Though abundant information on PBEE is available throughout the world, the application of this PBEE to the moderate-seismicity regions such as their maximum considered earthquake being less than magnitude 6.5 is not always straightforward because some portion of the PBEE may not be appropriate in these regions due to the environment different from the high-seismicity regions. This paper reviews the state-of-art in PBEE briefly. Then, the seismic hazard in moderate-seismicity regions including Korean Peninsula is introduced with its unique characteristics. With this seismic hazard, representative lowrise RC MRF structures and high-rise RC residential wall structures are evaluated by using PBEE approach. Also, the range of forces and deformations of the representative building structures in Korea is given. Based on these reviews, some ideas for the use of PBEE to improve the state-of-practice in moderate-seismicity regions are proposed.
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a relatively new heavy timber construction material (also referred to as massive timber) that originated in central Europe and quickly spread to building applications around the world over the past two decades. Using dimension lumber (typically in the range of 1× or 2× sizes) glue laminated with each lamination layer oriented at 90° to the adjacent layer, CLT panels can be manufactured into virtually any size (with one dimension limited by the width of the press), precut and pregrooved into desirable shapes, and then shipped to the construction site for quick installation. Panelized CLT buildings are robust in resisting gravity load (compared to light-frame wood buildings) because CLT walls are effectively like solid wood pieces in load bearing. The design of CLT for gravity is relatively straightforward for residential and light commercial applications where there are plenty of wall lines in the floor plan. However, the behavior of panelized CLT systems under lateral load is not well understood especially when there is high seismic demand. Compared to light-frame wood shear walls, it is relatively difficult for panelized CLT shear walls to achieve similar levels of lateral deflection without paying special attention to design details, i.e., connections. A design lacking ductility or energy dissipating mechanism will result in high acceleration amplifications and excessive global overturning demands for multistory buildings, and even more so for tall wood buildings. Although a number of studies have been conducted on CLT shear walls and building assemblies since the 1990s, the wood design community’s understanding of the seismic behavior of panelized CLT systems is still in the learning phase, hence the impetus for this article and the tall CLT building workshop, which will be introduced herein. For example, there has been a recent trend in engineering to improve resiliency, which seeks to design a building system such that it can be restored to normal functionality sooner after an earthquake than previously possible, i.e., it is a resilient system. While various resilient lateral system concepts have been explored for concrete and steel construction, this concept has not yet been realized for multistory CLT systems. This forum article presents a review of past research developments on CLT as a lateral force-resisting system, the current trend toward design and construction of tall buildings with CLT worldwide, and attempts to summarize the societal needs and challenges in developing resilient CLT construction in regions of high seismicity in the United States.
The material presented in this paper refers to a part of the investigation on cross-laminated (XLam) wall panel systems subjected to seismic excitation, carried out within the bilateral project realized by the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology (IZIIS) and the Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering at the University of Ljubljana (UL FCGE). The full program of the research consista of basic tests of small XLam wooden blocks and quasi-static tests of anchors, then quasi-static tests of full-scale wall panels with given anchors, shaking-table tests of two types of XLam systems including ambient-vibration tests, and finally analytical research for the definition of the computational model for the analysis of these structural systems. In this paper, the full-scale shaking-table tests for one XLam system type (i.e. specimen 1 consisting of two single-unit massive wooden XLam panels) that have been performed in the IZIIS laboratory are discussed. The principal objectives of the shaking-table tests have been to get an insight into the behavior of the investigated XLam panel systems under seismic excitations, develop a physical and practical computational model for simutalion of the dynamic response based on the tests, and finally correlate the results with those from the previously performed quasi-static tests on the same wooden panel types. The obtained experimental results have been verified using a proposed computational model that included new contitutive relationships for anchors and contact zones between panels and foundations. Because a reasonable agreement between the numerical and experimental results has been achieved, the proposed computational model is expected to provide a solid basis for future research on the practical design of these relatively new materials and systems.
In this paper, the behaviour of cross-lam (CLT) wall systems under cyclic loads is examined. Experimental investigations of single walls and adjacent wall panels (coupled walls) in terms of cyclic behaviour under lateral loading carried out ìn Italy at IVALSA Trees and Timber Institute and in Canada at FPInnovations are presented. Different classifications of the global behaviour of CLT wall systems are introduced. Typical failure mechanisms are discussed and provisions for a proper CLT wall seismic design are given. The influences of different types of global behaviour on mechanical properties and energy dissipation of the CLT wall systems are critically discussed. The outcomes of this experimental study provides better understanding of the seismic behaviour and energy dissipation capacities of CLT wall systems.