The work presented in this report is a continuation of the FPInnovations' research project on determining the performance of the CLT as a structural system under lateral loads. As currently there are no standardized methods for determining the resistance of CLT shearwalls under lateral loads, the design approaches are left at the descretion of the designers. The most common approach that is currently used in Europe and North America assumes that the resistance of CLT walls is a simple summary of the shear resistance of all connectors at the bottom of the wall. In this report some new analytical models for predicting the design (factored) resistance of CLT walls under lateral loads were developed based on connection properties. These new models were then evaluated for their consistency along with their models that are currently used in North America and in Europe.
The paper discusses experimental and numerical seismic analyses of typical connections and wall systems used in cross-laminated (X-Lam) timber buildings. An extended experimental programme on typical X-Lam connections was performed at IVALSA Trees and Timber Institute. In addition, cyclic tests were also carried out on full-scale single and coupled X-Lam wall panels with different configurations and mechanical connectors subjected to lateral force. An advanced non-linear hysteretic spring to describe accurately the cyclic behaviour of
connections was implemented in ABAQUS finite element software package as an external subroutine. The FE model with the springs calibrated on single connection tests was then used to reproduce numerically the behaviour of X-Lam wall panels, and the results were compared with the outcomes of experimental full-scale tests carried out at IVALSA. The developed model is suitable for evaluating dissipated energy and seismic vulnerability of X-Lam structures.
This paper presents the development of two new types of hybrid cross-laminated timber plates (HCLTP) with an aim to improve structural performance of existing cross-laminated timber plates (Xlam or CLT). The first type are Xlam plates with glued timber ribs and the second type are Xlam plates with a concrete topping. A numerical...
The work presented in this report is a continuation of the FPInnovations' research project on determining the performance of the CLT as a structural system under lateral loads. A two storey full-scale model of a CLT house was tested under quasi-static monotonic and cyclic lateral loading in two directions, one direction at a time. In total five tests were performed; one push-over and two cyclic tests were conducted in the longer symmetrical direction (E-W), and two cyclic tests were performed in the shorter asymmetrical direction (N-S). In addition, before and after each test, natural frequencies of the house in both directions were measured. The main objective of the tests was to investigate 3-D system behaviour of the CLT structure subjected to lateral loads. The CLT structure subjected to lateral loads performed according to the design objectives.
Use of timber as a construction material has entered a period of renaissance since the development of high-performance engineered wood products, enabling larger and taller buildings to be built. In addition, due to substantial contribution of the building sector to global energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and waste production, sustainable solutions are needed, for which timber has shown a great potential as a sustainable, resilient and renewable building alternative, not only for single family homes but also for mid-rise and high-rise buildings. Both recent technological developments in timber engineering and exponentially increased use of engineered wood products and wood composites reflect in deficiency of current timber codes and standards. This paper presents an overview of some of the current challenges and emerging trends in the field of seismic design of timber buildings. Currently existing building codes and the development of new generation of European building codes are presented. Ongoing studies on a variety topics within seismic timber engineering are presented, including tall timber and hybrid buildings, composites with timber and seismic retrofitting with timber. Crucial challenges, key research needs and opportunities are addressed and critically discussed.