Skip header and navigation

27 records – page 1 of 3.

An Analytical Model for Design of Reinforcement around Holes in Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) Beams

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue135
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Design and Systems
Mechanical Properties
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Beams
Author
Ardalany, Manoochehr
Fragiacomo, Massimo
Moss, Peter
Deam, Bruce
Publisher
Springer Netherlands
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Journal Article
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Beams
Topic
Design and Systems
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Failure
Glued-In Rods
Model
Reinforcement
Screws
Tensile
Research Status
Complete
Series
Materials and Structures
Summary
Openings are usually required to allow services like plumbing, sewage pipes and electrical wiring to run through beams. This prevents an extra depth of the floor/ceiling, while preserving architectural considerations. The introduction of large opening causes additional tension perpendicular to grain in timber beams. The low tensile strength perpendicular to grain of wood allows crack formation. Crack propagation around the hole considerably decreases the load-carrying capacity of the beam. However, in most cases, crack formation and propagation around the hole can be prevented by the use of an appropriate reinforcement. Screw, glued-in rods, and plywood are alternative options for the reinforcement. Design of the reinforcement requires that the working mechanism of the reinforcement is fully understood and properly addressed. In addition, reinforcement should be designed for actions produced in the section of the beam weakened by the hole. The current paper uses a simple truss model around the opening to calculate the tensile force in the reinforcement. Two simple formulations for design of the reinforcement are derived and compared with numerical and experimental results, showing an overall good correspondence. The proposed truss model can be considered for incorporation in future codes of practice.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Application of a Translational Tuned Mass Damper Designed by Means of Genetic Algorithms on a Multistory Cross-Laminated Timber Building 

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue413
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Poh’sié, Guillaume
Chisari, Corrado
Rinaldin, Giovanni
Fragiacomo, Massimo
Amadio, Claudio
Ceccotti, Ario
Publisher
American Society of Civil Engineers
Year of Publication
2015
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Translational Tuned Mass Damper
Dynamic Analysis
Multi-Story
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Structural Engineering
Summary
This paper presents a numerical study conducted on a seven-story timber building made of cross-laminated (X-lam) panels, equipped with a linear translational tuned mass damper (TMD). The TMD is placed on the top of the building as a technique for reducing the notoriously high drifts and seismic accelerations of these types of structures. TMD parameters (mass, stiffness, and damping) were designed using a genetic algorithm (GA) technique by optimizing the structural response under seven recorded earthquake ground motions compatible, on average, with a predefined elastic spectrum. Time-history dynamic analyses were carried out on a simplified two-degree-offreedom system equivalent to the multistory building, while a detailed model of the entire building using two-dimensional elastic shell elements and elastic springs for modeling connections was used as a verification of the evaluated solution. Several comparisons between the response of the structure with and without TMD subjected to medium- and high-intensity recorded earthquake ground motions are presented, and the effectiveness and limits of these devices for improving the seismic performance of X-lam buildings are critically evaluated.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Application of Translational Tuned-Mass Dampers on Seven Storey Building Tested within the SOPHIE Project

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue493
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Seismic
Connections
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Poh’sié, Guillaume
Rinaldin, Giovanni
Fragiacomo, Massimo
Amadio, Claudio
Ceccotti, Ario
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Connections
Keywords
finite element
Abaqus
Tuned Mass Dampers
Cyclic Behaviour
Dynamic Analysis
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 10-14, 2014, Quebec City, Canada
Summary
The paper presents a numerical study conducted on a seven storey cross-laminated (X-lam) buildings equipped with translational Tuned Mass Dampers (TMD’s), as a technique for reducing the notoriously high drifts and maximum seismic accelerations of these types of structures. The building was modelled in the finite element software package Abaqus using 2D elastic shell elements and non-linear springs, which were implemented as an external user subroutine and properly calibrated to simulate the cyclic behavior of connectors in X-lam buildings. The used TMD device is linear, and placed on the top of the building. Time-history dynamic analyses were carried out under natural earthquake ground motions. Several comparisons between the response of the structure with and without TMD are presented, and the effectiveness and limits of these devices to improve the seismic performance of X-lam buildings are critically discussed.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Design and Construction of Prestressed Timber Buildings for Seismic Areas

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1847
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Smith, Tobias
Pampanin, Stefano
Fragiacomo, Massimo
Buchannan, Andy
Publisher
New Zealand Timber Design Society
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Journal Article
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Pre-Stressed
Low-Rise
Multi-Storey
Earthquake Resistance
Hybrid Structures
Research Status
Complete
Series
New Zealand Timber Design Journal
Summary
This paper describes the structural design of low-rise multi-storey timber buildings using a new and exciting structural system. This system, originally developed for use with pre-cast concrete, combines un-bonded post-tensioning and additional energy dissipaters, providing a recentering capability after the earthquake, while greatly reducing the structural damage. This new structural system can be used in multi-storey buildings, with large structural timber members made from laminated veneer lumber (LVL) or glulam timber, with lateral loads resisted by prestressed timber frames or walls, separately or in combination. A case study of a six storey timber office building in a moderate seismic area is analysed and a virtual design is carried out, allowing investigation of different methods of structural analysis, and development of many construction and connection details for rapid construction. Total building cost is compared to equivalent steel and reinforced concrete options.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

The Design of a Semi-Prefabricated LVL-Concrete Composite Floor

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue103
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Author
Yeoh, David
Fragiacomo, Massimo
Publisher
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Journal Article
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Flexural Stiffness Method
Prefabrication
Research Status
Complete
Series
Advances in Civil Engineering
Summary
This paper describes the design of a novel semi-prefabricated LVL-concrete composite floor that has been developed in New Zealand. In this solution, the floor units made from LVL joists and plywood are prefabricated in the factory and transported to the building site. The units are then lifted onto the supports and connected to the main frames of the building and to the adjacent units. Finally, a concrete topping is poured on top of the units in order to form a continuous slab connecting all the units. Rectangular notches cut from the LVL joists and reinforced with coach screws provide the composite action between the concrete slab and the LVL joists. This system proved to be an effective modular solution that ensures rapid construction. A design procedure based on the use of the effective flexural stiffness method, also known as the “gamma method” is proposed for the design of the composite floor at ultimate and serviceability limit states, in the short and long term. By comparison with the experimental results, it is shown that the proposed method leads to conservative design. A step-by-step design worked example of this novel semi-prefabricated composite floor concludes the paper.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Design of Timber-Concrete Composite Structures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1936
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Connections
Serviceability
Design and Systems
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Author
Dias, Alfredo
Fragiacomo, Massimo
Gramatikov, Kiril
Kreis, Benjamin
Kupferle, Frank
Monteiro, Sandra
Sandanus, Jaroslav
Schänzlin, Jörg
Schober, Kay-Uwe
Sebastian, Wendel
Sogel, Kristian
Editor
Dias, Alfredo
Schänzlin, Jörg
Dietsch, Philipp
Publisher
COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Book/Guide
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Connections
Serviceability
Design and Systems
Keywords
Internal Loads
External Loads
Dowel Type Fastener
Notches
Stiffness
Strength
Ductility
Eurocode 5
Load Carrying Capacity
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The aim of this document is to report the state of the art in terms of research and practice of Timber-Concrete Composite (TCC) systems, in order to summarize the existing knowledge in the single countries and to develop a common understanding of the design of TCC. This report was made within the framework of WG4-Hybrid Structures within COST Action FP1402. It intends to reflect the information and studies available around the world, but especially in Europe through the active contribution and participation of experts from various countries involved in this Action.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Experimental-Numerical Analyses of the Seismic Behaviour of Cross-Laminated Wall Systems

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue56
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Seismic
Energy Performance
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Author
Gavric, Igor
Rinaldin, Giovanni
Amadio, Claudio
Fragiacomo, Massimo
Ceccotti, Ario
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Topic
Seismic
Energy Performance
Keywords
Finite Element Model
Abaqus
Experimental
Numerical
Full Scale
Cyclic Testing
Conference
World Conference on Earthquake Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
September 24-28, 2012, Lisbon, Portugal
Summary
The paper discusses experimental and numerical seismic analyses of typical connections and wall systems used in cross-laminated (X-Lam) timber buildings. An extended experimental programme on typical X-Lam connections was performed at IVALSA Trees and Timber Institute. In addition, cyclic tests were also carried out on full-scale single and coupled X-Lam wall panels with different configurations and mechanical connectors subjected to lateral force. An advanced non-linear hysteretic spring to describe accurately the cyclic behaviour of connections was implemented in ABAQUS finite element software package as an external subroutine. The FE model with the springs calibrated on single connection tests was then used to reproduce numerically the behaviour of X-Lam wall panels, and the results were compared with the outcomes of experimental full-scale tests carried out at IVALSA. The developed model is suitable for evaluating dissipated energy and seismic vulnerability of X-Lam structures.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Experimental seismic behavior of a two-story CLT platform building

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3227
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Lindt, John W. van de
Furley, Jace
Amini, M. Omar
Pei, Shiling
Tamagnone, Gabriele
Barbosa, Andre R.
Rammer, Doug
Line, Philip
Fragiacomo, Massimo
Popovski, Marjan
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Shake Table Test
Earthquake
Research Status
Complete
Series
Engineering Structures
Summary
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) manufacturing and construction has been steadily growing since its inception in Europe in the 1990s. In the US, the growth of the CLT adoption is inhibited by the lack of codified design provisions for CLT in high seismic regions. This led to a multi-year study conducted by Colorado State University to investigate suitable seismic design parameters of CLT shear wall systems. This paper presents the results from a series of shake-table tests featuring a full-scale two-story mass-timber building utilizing CLT Seismic Force Resisting Systems (SFRS). The building was designed using an R- factor equal to 4.0 under the equivalent lateral force procedure specifications of the ASCE 7-16 Standard. The test program included three phases with different wall configurations, reflecting different wall panel aspect ratios and the existence of transverse CLT walls. Test results indicate that the code-level life safety objective was achieved in all test configurations. The addition of transverse walls did not affect the ability of the panels to rock, and improved the performance of the building structural system.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Experimental Seismic Behavior of a Two-Story CLT Platform Building: Shake Table Testing Results

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2052
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Seismic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
van de Lindt, John
Amini, Omar
Furley, Jace
Pei, Shiling
Tamagnone, Gabriele
Barbosa, André
Line, Philip
Rammer, Douglas
Fragiacomo, Massimo
Organization
Colorado State University
University of Trieste
Oregon State University
Amarican Wood Council
Forest Products Laboratory
University of L'Aquila
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Shake Table Tests
Full Scale
Service Level Earthquake
Design Base Earthquake
Maximum Considered Earthquake
Seismic Force Resisting System
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Summary
With the increased usage of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) in the United States, research efforts have been focused on demonstrating CLT as an effective Seismic Force Resisting System (SFRS). Presented in this paper are the findings of full-scale shake table tests of a two-story 223 m2 (2400 ft2) building with two sets of CLT shear walls on the first and second story. The testing consisted of three phases, each with a unique wall configuration, but only the first phase is presented herein, which consisted of a shear wall with 4:1 aspect ratio CLT panels. The structure was subjected to ground motions scaled to intensities that correspond to a Service Level Earthquake (SLE), Design Base Earthquake (DBE), and Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) respectively. In all phases and motions the structure performed well and was in accordance with FEMA collapse prevention requirements for each motion intensity.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Experimental seismic behaviour of a two-story CLT platform building: design and shake table testing

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3231
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Lindt, John W. van de
Furley, Jace
Amini, M. Omar
Pei, Shiling
Tamagnone, Gabriele
Barbosa, Andre
Rammer, Doug
Line, Philip
Fragiacomo, Massimo
Popovski, Marjan
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Seismic Force Resisting System
FEMA P-695 Methodology
Shake Table Testing
Conference
16th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Since its introduction in Europe more than two decades ago, Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) is viewed as a new-generation of engineered wood products and has found its way into the US construction market. Recent research efforts have demonstrated that CLT can be effectively utilized as a seismic force resisting system. This paper presents the results of part of a study conducted at Colorado State University to systematically investigate seismic behaviour of CLT shear wall systems in regions of high seismicity for use in the United States. Specifically, the results of a full-scale shake table test of a two-storey 223 m2 building. The CLT special shear walls in the building were designed based on a design methodology that resulted from connector and reverse cyclic testing of isolated CLT shear walls using a generic connector. The main design assumption for these walls is that all overturning was resisted by the overturning anchor (tie-down rod or hold-downs) at the wall ends and the shear is resisted by the generic angle brackets connected with nails. The shake table tests were performed in three phases with each phase consisting of a different CLT wall configuration. Phase 1 and 2 were multi-panel configurations with 4:1 (h/b) and 2:1 aspect ratio panels, respectively. Phase 3 was another 4:1 aspect ratio wall with return walls added in the transverse direction to examine their effect on the overall response. The structure was subjected to several ground motions including one scaled to the maximum credible earthquake (MCE), equivalent to a 2475 year return period.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

27 records – page 1 of 3.