Slender timber beams subjected to gravity loads may buckle in the out-of-plane direction. Normally, the same bracing system that is used to prevent lateral movements of the beams, caused by external transversal loading, also serve to increase the buckling strength of the beams. For the idealized case of a perfectly straight beam with full-bracing there is no force in the braces even at buckling because there is no displacement at the brace points. However, in real beams brace forces do develop during loading. This paper describes experimental and analytical studies performed on slender glulam beams subjected to gravity loads laterally stiffened by means of discrete bracing. In particular, the influence of relevant parameters such as i) brace stiffness, ii) brace position, iii) shape and magnitude of initial imperfections on the brace force were investigated.
Wind-induced dynamic excitation is becoming a governing design action determining size and shape of modern Tall Timber Buildings (TTBs). The wind actions generate dynamic loading, causing discomfort or annoyance for occupants due to the perceived horizontal sway – i.e. vibration serviceability failure. Although some TTBs have been instrumented and measured to estimate their key dynamic properties (natural frequencies and damping), no systematic evaluation of dynamic performance pertinent to wind loading has been performed for the new and evolving construction technology used in TTBs. The DynaTTB project, funded by the Forest Value research program, mixes on site measurements on existing buildings excited by heavy shakers, for identification of the structural system, with laboratory identification of building elements mechanical features coupled with numerical modelling of timber structures. The goal is to identify and quantify the causes of vibration energy dissipation in modern TTBs and provide key elements to FE modelers. The first building, from a list of 8, was modelled and tested at full scale in December 2019. Some results are presented in this paper. Four other buildings will be modelled and tested in spring 2021.
This paper deals with experimental and numerical dynamic analyses of two timber footbridges. Both bridges have a span of 35 m and consist of a timber deck supported by two timber arches. The main purpose is to investigate if the dynamic properties of the bridges are season dependent. To this end, experimental tests are performed during a cold day in winter and a warm day in spring in Sweden. The first bending and transverse mode frequencies increase 22% and 44%, respectively, due to temperature effects in the case of Vega Bridge. In the case of Hägernäs bridge, the corresponding values are 5% and 26%. For both bridges, the measured damping coefficients are similar in winter and spring. However, the damping coefficients for the first bending and transverse modes are different for both footbridges: about 1% for the Hägernäs bridge and 3% for the Vega bridge. Finite-element models are also implemented. Both numerical and experimental results show good correspondence. From the analyses performed, it is concluded that the connections between the different components of the bridges have a significant influence on the dynamic properties. In addition, the variation of the stiffness for the asphalt layer can explain the differences found in the natural frequencies between spring and winter. However, due to the uncertainties in the modelling of the asphalt layer, this conclusion must be taken with caution.
IASS WORKING GROUPS 12 + 18 International Colloquium 2015
April 10-13, 2015, Tokyo, Japan
This paper summarizes an experimental investigation on several innovative reinforcing techniques for the “Single Large Diameter Dowel Connection”, SLDDC in timber truss structures. Besides lateral reinforcing or prestressing, also steel plates glued on two sides of the glulam specimens were used as reinforcing measure. To study the efficiency of these techniques, 15 full-scale quasi-static tensile tests on glulam members with a SLDDC on either ends of each member were performed. It was found that the reinforcement significantly enhanced the bearing capacity of the SLDDCs. All of the reinforcing techniques showed a satisfactory efficiency, preventing splitting of wood. Moreover, most of the specimens remains showed a remarkable post failure strength.