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Self-Extinguishment of Cross-Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue328
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Crielaard, Roy
Organization
Delft University of Technology
Year of Publication
2015
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Failure
High-Rise
Fire behaviour
Self-extinguishment
Research Status
Complete
Summary
In this research the effect of using the combustible material CLT as the main bearing structure is investigated. As a combustible material, unprotected CLT can burn along with the fuel load present in a compartment. This master’s thesis aims to increase insight into the fire behaviour of unprotected CLT structures in a compartment burnout, conservatively assuming no active measures. The main research question of this work is: “Under what conditions is there a potential for self-extinguishment of cross-laminated timber?” A model of self-extinguishment of CLT was created which consists of various phases of a compartment burnout. Under the influence of an initial fire due to burning of room contents, the exposed CLT becomes involved in flaming combustion. Once the room contents have been largely consumed and the initial fire decays, the CLT contribution is expected to decrease as well, transforming from flaming to smouldering combustion. Finally, there will be a transition from smouldering to self-extinguishment. Two series of experiments were conducted to investigate this model and the conditions under which the transitions can take place.
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Self-Extinguishment of Cross-Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1709
Year of Publication
2016
Author
Crielaard, Roy
Van de Kuilen, Jan-Willem
Terwel, Karel
Ravenshorst, Geert
Steenbakkers, Pascal
Breunese, Arnoud
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 4477-4486
Summary
Cross-laminated timber, or CLT, is receiving attention for its potential use in tall buildings. As a combustible material, one of the challenges for the construction of these buildings is the fire risk that results from its use in the structure. Unprotected CLT can burn along with the fuel load present in a compartment. Irrespective of its fire resistance rating, it is uncertain whether the structure will be totally consumed in the event of a complete burnout, or whether a fire would decay by self-extinguishment. Self-extinguishment of CLT was investigated by first creating a theoretical model that determined the conditions under which it could be achieved. Two series of experiments were subsequently conducted to quantify these conditions. Based on these experiments it was concluded that there is a potential for self-extinguishment of CLT if: delamination and falloff of charred layers are prevented by applying sufficiently thick lamellae; the heat flux on the CLT during smouldering is below 5 to 6 kW/m2; and the airflow over the CLT surface during smouldering is limited to a speed of 0,5 m/s at heat flux exposures below 6 kW/m2. .
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Towards Fire Safe Design of Exposed Timber in Tall Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1680
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Barber, David
Crielaard, Roy
Li, Xiao
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Heat Release Rate
Exposed Timber
Fire Safety
Compartment Fires
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3968-3977
Summary
As timber buildings are constructed taller, architects and building owners are asking for more timber to be exposed. Addressing how exposed timber and in particular cross laminated timber, influences a fully developed fire through to self-extinguishment is a current and complex fire safety issue. There is limited research available on how exposed timber alters heat release rate, temperatures and fire duration. This paper provides a summary of the relevant research to understand similarities in findings and how the results of fire tests can be applied. Research shows that large areas of exposed timber has a significant impact on heat release rate, but limited areas of exposed timber can be accommodated within a fire safe design. The location of exposed timber and avoiding two or more adjacent exposed surfaces, is an important finding. It is evident from the limited testing that a single exposed timber wall of approximately 20% of the total wall area has little impact on a compartment fire. The development of a calculation methodology to account for the change in compartment fire dynamics when two or more surfaces are exposed is the next step in the advancement of exposed timber fire safety engineering.
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Free
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