Innovative mass timber panels, known as composite laminated panels (CLP), have been developed using lumber and laminated strand lumber (LSL) laminates. In this study, strain distributions of various 5-layer CLP and cross-laminated timber (CLT) were investigated by experimental and two modelling methods. Seven (7) different panel types were tested in third-point bending and short-span shear tests. During the tests, the digital imaging correlation (DIC) technique was used to measure the normal and shear strain in areas of interest. Evaluated component properties were used to determine strain distributions based on the shear analogy method and finite element (FE) modelling. The calculated theoretical strain distributions were compared with the DIC test results to evaluate the validity of strain distributions predicted by the analytical model (shear analogy) and numerical model (FE analysis). In addition, the influence of the test setup on the shear strain distribution was investigated. Results showed that the DIC strain distributions agreed well with the ones calculated by the shear analogy method and FE analysis. Both theoretical methods agree well with the test results in terms of strain distribution shape and magnitude. While the shear analogy method shows limitations when it comes to local strain close to the supports or gaps, the FE analysis reflects these strain shifts well. The findings support that the shear analogy is generally applicable for the stress and strain determination of CLP and CLT for structural design, while an FE analysis can be beneficial when it comes to the evaluation of localized stresses and strains. Due to the influence of compression at a support, the shear strain distribution near the support location is not symmetric. This is confirmed by the FE method.
Properties of CLT panels are influenced by the properties of their layers and the layer properties are in turn influenced by the structural characteristics of the laminate material. In order to realize the mechanical property potential of CLT panels it is necessary to understand the effects of laminate properties on the performance of the final product. This paper presents the approach and outcomes of an on-going study dealing with the evaluation of material and structural characteristics of laminates and their effects on overall characteristics of CLT using modal testing. Characteristics of “homogenised” layers and CLT panels were evaluated using modal and static testing. The suitability of test methods was established for single-layer panels and CLT panels. Relationships between overall single-layer properties and laminate characteristics were established. Differences in CLT properties calculated by different calculation models were discussed.
Wood-concrete composite slab floors provide a promising solution for achieving long spans and shallow wood-based floor systems for large and tall wood buildings. In comparison with conventional wood floor systems, such long span and heavy floors have a lower fundamental natural frequency, which challenges the floor vibration controlled design. A laboratory study, including subjective evaluation and measurement of the natural frequencies and one-kN static deflections, was conducted on wood-concrete composite floors. Method of calculation of the composite bending stiffness of the wood-concrete composite floor is proposed. The design criterion for human comfort was derived from the subjective evaluation results using the calculated fundamental natural frequency and 1 kN static deflection of one meter wide strip of the composite floor. The equation to directly determine the vibration controlled spans from the stiffness and mass was derived. Limited verification was performed. Further verification is needed when more field wood-concrete composite floors become available.
This study focuses on the vibrational behaviour of 3, 5 and 7-layer cross-laminated timber (CLT) plates supported on two sides with different support conditions. Three end support setups are proposed; 1) top load over the two supported edges, 2) direct fastening to support using self-tapping screws, 3) steel angle bracket support. The measured response parameters are natural frequencies, damping, and static deflection under a point load. The rotational stiffness with load, screws and steel angle brackets will be characterized through static tests. In addition, the effect of the span is studied by varying the test span and repeating the vibration and deflection tests. The laboratory tests will be supplemented with analytical modelling. The expected outcome is the development of approaches to more accurately calculate the natural frequency and static deflection under a point load, which can account for the influence of common support conditions encountered in service.
The design and application of cross laminated timber (CLT) is s trongly influenced by rolling shear properties of cross layers. Hence, predicting the mechanical behaviour of CLT requires accurate information about its rolling shear properties. In this study, black spruce wood laminates with three different growth ring orientations (flat sawn, in-between, quarter sawn) were edge glued to produce wooden cross layer (WCL). Two-plate shear tests were carried out on WCL to investigate the influence of growth ring orientation on the rolling shear properties. The experimental results showed that the growth ring orientation had a significant effect on rolling shear modulus of WCL, however, almost no effect on the rolling shear strength. The WCL of in-between end grain had the maximum rolling shear modulus of 89MPa and rolling sh ear strength of 2.13 MPa.