Lack of research and design information for the seismic performance of balloon-type CLT shear walls prevents CLT from being used as an acceptable solution to resist seismic loads in balloon-type mass-timber buildings. To quantify the performance of balloon-type CLT structures subjected to lateral loads and create the research background for future code implementation of balloon-type CLT systems in CSA O86 and NBCC, FPInnovations initiated a project to determine the behaviour of balloon-type CLT construction. A series of tests on balloon-type CLT walls and connections used in these walls were conducted. Analytical models were developed based on engineering principles and basic mechanics to predict the deflection and resistance of the balloon-type CLT shear walls. This report covers the work related to development of the analytical models and the tests on balloon-type CLT walls that the models were verified against.
FPInnovations carried out a survey with consultants and researchers on the use of analytical models and software packages related to the analysis and design of mass timber buildings. The responses confirmed that a lack of suitable models and related information for material properties of timber connections was creating an impediment to the design and construction of this type of buildings. Furthermore, there is currently a lack of computer models and expertise for carrying out performance-based design for wood buildings, in particular seismic and/or fire performance design.
In this study, a sophisticated constitutive model for wood-based composite material under stress and temperature was developed. This constitutive model was programmed into a user-subroutine which can be added to most general-purpose finite element software. The developed model was validated with test results of a laminated veneer lumber (LVL) beam and glulam bolted connection under force and/or fire.
The latest developments in seismic design philosophy have been geared towards developing of so called "resilient" or "low damage" innovative structural systems that can reduce damage to the structure while offering the same or higher levels of safety to occupants. One such innovative structural system is the Pres-Lam system that is a wood-hybrid system that utilizes post-tensioned (PT) mass timber components in both rigid-frame and wall-based buildings along with various types of energy disspators. To help implement the Pres-Lam system in Canada and the US, information about the system performance made with North American engineered wood products is needed. That information can later be used to develop design guidelines for the designers for wider acceptance of the system by the design community.Several components influence the performance of the Pres-Lam systems: the load-deformation properties of the engineered wood products under compression, load-deformation and energy dissipation properties of the dissipators used, placement of the dissipators in the system, and the level of post-tensioning force. The influence of all these components on the performance of Pres-Lam wall systems under gravity and lateral loads was investigated in this research project. The research project consisted of two main parts: material tests and system tests.
Mass timber (MT) building systems are gaining momentum around the world, especially in Canada where Federal and Provincial governments encourage the greater use of wood in construction projects through various promotion programs such as GCWood Program. In the meanwhile, seismic design provisions in the 2020 National Building Code of Canada have been revised, resulting in significantly higher seismic loads for structures in many locations. Consequently, there is a need to develop new lateral load resisting systems that allow mass timber structures to better compete against their counterparts in steel, concrete and masonry. Building on the success of midply shear walls for wood-frame construction, a multi-year research project was initiated at FPInnovaitons to develop MT version of midply shear wall systems that have greater structural capacities, fire, and acoustical performance.
In the first year of this project, literature reviews were conducted to identify the code requirements on MT components and to survey the available LLRSs used in the MTstructures. Conceptual MT midply wall systems meeting structural, fire, and acoustical performance requirements were proposed. An advisory group meeting was held to evaluate the practicability of the proposed MT midply systems. In the next fiscal year, the proposed MT Midply will be optimised further according to the comments and suggestions from the advisory group. Analytical evaluation of the proposed MT Midply wall systems along with necessary tests will be conducted. Based on the evaluation, a go / no-go decision will be made as to whether the study should be continued for the proposed MT Midply.
National Building Code of Canada (NBC) 2020 is the latest edition of the national model code that will be published towards the end of 2021. Based on the best available information from the Standing Committee on Earthquake Design (SCED) at the time of writing this report, the seismic design demand in the NBC 2020 has increased for all site classes for many locations across the country. Also, there are other changes in NBC 2020 that might impact the seismic analysis and design of timber buildings. The main objective of this report is to compare the NBC 2020 to the 2015 edition, with emphasis on the level of the seismic design loads (demands), and potential impacts on the analysis and design of timber buildings.
Braced timber frames (BTFs) are one of the most efficient structural systems to resist lateral loads induced by earthquakes or high winds. Although BTFs are implemented as a system in the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC), no design guidelines currently exist in CSA O86. That not only leaves these efficient systems out of reach of designers, but also puts them in danger of being eliminated from NBCC. The main objective of this project is to generate the technical information needed for development of design guidelines for BTFs as a lateral load resisting system in CSA O86. The seismic performance of 30 BTFs with riveted connections was studied last year by conducting nonlinear dynamic analysis; and also 15 glulam brace specimens using bolted connections were tested under cyclic loading.
In the second year of the project, a relationship between the connection and system ductility of BTFs was derived based on engineering principles. The proposed relationship was verified against the nonlinear pushover analysis results of single- and multi-storey BTFs with various building heights. The influence of the connection ductility, the stiffness ratio, and the number of tiers and storeys on the system ductility of BTFs was investigated using the verified relationship. The minimum connection ductility for different categories (moderately ductile and limited ductility) of BTFs was estimated.
Midply shear wall, which was originally developed by researchers at Forintek Canada Corp. (predecessor of FPInnovations) and the University of British Columbia, is a high-capacity shear wall system that is suitable for high wind and seismic loadings. Its superior seismic performance was demonstrated in a full-scale earthquake simulation test of a 6-storey wood-frame building in Japan. In collaboration with APA–The Engineered Wood Association and the American Wood Council (AWC), a new framing arrangement was designed in this study to increase the vertical load resistance of midply shear walls and make it easier to accommodate electrical and plumbing services. In this study, a total of 12 midply shear wall specimens in four wall configurations with different sheathing thicknesses and nail spacing were tested under reversed cyclic loading. Test results showed that the modified midply shear walls have approximately twice the lateral load capacity of a comparable standard shear wall. The drift capacity and energy dissipation capability are also greater than comparable standard shear wall. Seismic equivalency to standard shear walls in accordance with ASTM D7989 was also conducted. Results show that an overstrength factor of 2.5 and can be used to assign allowable design strengths of midply shear walls with 7/16” and nail spacing at 4” or 3” on center. For midply shear walls with 19/32” OSB, a higher overstrength factor must be used to meet the ductility criteria. The information from this study will support code implementation of the midply shear walls in Canadian and US timber design standards, thereby providing more design options for light wood frame structures in North America.
As global interest in using engineered wood products in tall buildings intensifies due to the “green” credential of wood, it is expected that more tall wood buildings will be designed and constructed in the coming years. This, however, brings new challenges to the designers. One of the major challenges is how to design lateral load-resisting systems (LLRSs) with sufficient stiffness, strength, and ductility to resist strong wind and earthquakes. In this study, an LLRS using mass timber panel on a stiff podium was developed for high-rise buildings in accordance with capacity-based design principle. The LLRS comprises eight shear walls with a core in the center of the building, which was constructed with structural composite lumber and connected with dowel-type connections and wood–steel composite system. The main energy dissipating mechanism of the LLRS was detailed to be located at the panel-to-panel interface. This LLRS was implemented in the design of a hypothetical 20-storey building. A finite element (FE) model of the building was developed using general-purpose FE software, ABAQUS. The wind-induced and seismic response of the building model was investigated by performing linear static and non-linear dynamic analyses. The analysis results showed that the proposed LLRS using mass timber was suitable for high-rise buildings. This study provided a valuable insight into the structural performance of LLRS constructed with mass timber panels as a viable option to steel and concrete for high-rise buildings.
Mass timber (MT) products, such as Glued Laminated Timber (GLT), Cross Laminated Timber (CLT), Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL), Nail Laminated Timber (NLT), Dowel Laminated Timber (DLT), Laminated Strand Lumber (LSL), Parallel Strand Lumber (PSL), Mass Plywood Panels (MPP) and others, provide options for developing efficient structural systems to resist gravity and lateral loads. Such systems can be competitive alternatives to their steel and concrete counterparts. This InfoNote briefly introduces the MT Seismic Force Resisting Systems (SFRSs) that will be implemented in the 2020 National Building Code (NBC) of Canada, their height limits, and the main design requirements according to Canadian Standard for Engineering Design in Wood CSA O86-19. Differences among height limits for MT gravity and lateral load resisting systems are also discussed.
Due to the awareness of the importance of reducing environmental footprint and the rising costs of construction, timber structures have been increasingly attracting attention and, subsequently, adoption for being built taller and larger. Computer modelling plays a crucial role in the analysis and design of large and tall timber structures, and in the development of wood-based products, connections, and systems. A survey by FPInnovations showed that practising engineers are typically unfamiliar with timber structure modelling, and researchers generally lack resources for advanced modelling of timber systems. Therefore, in 2020, FPInnovations initiated a project to develop a guide that would support the application of numerical modelling on the analysis and design of timber structures, and the development and optimisation of wood-based products and systems. The Modelling Guide for Timber Structures is the result of a global effort involving over 100 collaborators, including experts from research institutes, consulting firms, manufacturers, software companies, government entities, and associations.
This guide brings together the experience gained from recently built timber projects, and the latest research development in the modelling of timber structures. It includes a wide range of practical and advanced modelling topics, such as key modelling principles, methods, and techniques specific to timber structures; modelling approaches and considerations for wood-based components, connections, and assemblies; and analytical approaches and considerations for timber structures during progressive collapse, wind, and earthquake events. It also presents the differences in the modelling approaches to timber, steel, and concrete structures.
The information presented in this guide is intended to assist practising engineers to apply computer modelling to timber structures, enrich researchers’ resources for advanced computer modelling of timber systems, and assist software companies in identifying knowledge gaps so that they may upgrade programs accordingly to accommodate the advanced computer modelling of timber structures.